1. Lefebrve, The production of space, 37, 57.
2. Lefebrve, 33.
3. Lefebrve, 39, 46.
4. Dourish, Email to Lori Emerson.
5. Latour, Science in Action, 4, 99.
6. Kohler, “Lab History,” 766.
7. See Larocque, “Hook & Eye as Feminist Digital Media Lab”; Bowie, “SpiderWebShow.Ca as Messy Media Lab”; Stepić, “Bums in Seats.”
8. The origin of most discourse on cyberspace is, of course, William Gibson’s novel Neuromancer (New York : Berkley Pub. Group, 1984); but in terms of media studies works, Michael Benedikt’s edited collection Cyberspace: First Steps (Boston, MA: MIT UP 1991) and Howard Rheingold’s The Virtual Community (London: Secker & Warburg, 1994) are a few of the earliest and most extensive accounts of the shape and contours of multiple, early, online communities.
9. “Professor to Use Sky.”
10. See, for example, Natasha Lomas’ “Here’s Cambridge Analytica’s Plan for Voters’ Facebook Data” and “How academic at centre of Facebook scandal tried—and failed—to spin personal data.”
11. Miller, Toby, and George Yúdice. Cultural Policy. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2002. 15.
12. Edward Kim, “An Interview,” 2016.
13. The Lab at Ada’s.
14. Innis, Bias of Communication, 4.
15. Gooday, “Placing or Replacing the Laboratory in History of Science,” 788.
16. Alexander, A Pattern Language, 581.
17. Price, The Plan of St. Gall, 32.
18. Jackson, “Illuminating the Opacity,” 142.
19. Crosland, “Early Laboratories”, 234.
20. See also Ursula Klein’s excellent account in “Apothecaries, shops, laboratories and chemical manufacture in eighteenth-century Germany.”
21. Klein, “The Laboratory Challenge,” 770.
22. In addition to Shapin’s excellent historical accounts of the roots of laboratories in 17th century England, there are abundant accounts of the genesis of the laboratory over the last three hundred years—some of these include Owen Hannaway’s “Laboratory Design and the Aim of Science”; Frank A. J. L. James’ edited collection The Development of the Laboratory: Essays on the Place of Experiment in Industrial Civilization; Timothy Lenoir’s “Laboratories, medicine and public life in Germany 1830–1849: Ideological roots of the institutional revolution”; Graeme Gooday’s “Precision Measurement and the Genesis of Physics Teaching Laboratories in Victorian Britain”; and Leonard S. Reich’s The Making of American Industrial Research: Science and Business at GE and Bell, 1876–1926.
23. Klein, Ursula. “The Laboratory Challenge: Some Revisions of the Standard View of Early Modern Experimentation”. Isis 99 (2008): 769–82. 779–80.
24. Crosland, “Early Laboratories”, 238.
25. Cooper, “Homes and Households,” 227.
26. That said, as Marsha L. Richmond elaborates on in “A Lab of One’s Own,” her remarkable history of the Balfour Biological Laboratory for Women in Cambridge, the following decades featured various attempts, some successful and some not, to establish labs for women only.
27. Raymond, A Glossary of Mining, 52.
28. See also Nicole Starosielski’s “Thermocultures” as another account of how gender and power relations have played out in temperature and media.
29. quoted in Millard, Edison and the Business of Innovation, 6; Noble, America By Design, 119.
30. Gall, Thomas A. Edison, 29–30.
31. Jehl, Menlo Park Reminiscences Volume 1, 105–107; 220.
32. Gall, Thomas A. Edison, 21; Croffut, “Papa of the Phonograph,” 213.
33. Gall, 22.
34. Croffut, 213.
35. Alexander, A Pattern Language, 470.
36. Ibid, 471.
37. Millard, Edison and the Business of Innovation, 33.
38. Ibid, 23.
39. Alexander, A Pattern Language, 541.
40. Jehl, Menlo Park Reminiscences Volume 1, 225.
41. Alexander, A Pattern Language, 399.
42. Croffut, “The Papa of the Phonograph,” 215.
43. There are many excellent accounts of the architecture and planning of the MIT campus in general which of course lays the groundwork for the architecture and design of the MIT Media Lab; see, for example, William J. Mitchell’s Imagining MIT: Designing a Campus for the Twenty First Century (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007) and Mark M. Jarzombek’s Designing MIT: Bosworth’s New Tech (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2017).
44. Brand, Inventing the Future, 4.
45. Molly Steenson quotes from Nicholas Negroponte’s personal papers, in which he states that media not only belonged to no discipline (strangely overlooking the discipline of Communication Studies and media studies that had its relative beginnings in Canada in the early 1950s and had its first department by 1965) but that it was, in the early 1980s, rejected almost completely by universities: “‘media’ was ripe for claiming, especially because of its unpopularity . . . Media was intended to connote home, learning, and creative interface s . . . ‘By contrast, to my knowledge, nobody at MIT is addressing the home and, for that matter, no American university (to my knowledge) takes the world of consumer electronics seriously’“ (quoted in Steenson 216).
46. For more on MIT’s ties to the military industrial complex, see Stuart Leslie’s The Cold War and American Science: The Military-industrial-academic Complex at MIT and Stanford (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
47. John Beck and Ryan Bishop, “The Return of the Art and Technology Lab” Cultural Politics (2018) 14 (2): 225–243.
48. Negroponte, Being Digital, 224–225.
49. On the avant-garde and corporate labs, see again Beck and Bishop, “The Return of the Art and Technology Lab.”
50. Joi Ito, Whiplash, 16; 30; 140. Also note that, oddly, this reference to “an island of misfit toys” is another instance where lab discourse ignores a Canadian production in order to make a case for American exceptionalism. The metaphor comes from the 1964 Videocraft International (later Rankin/Bass) Christmas special, which was recorded at RCA Studios in Toronto with an entirely Canadian cast, with the exception of Burl Ives.
51. Wershler, Darren et al, “An Interview with Hiroshi Ishi.”
52. MIT Committee, Artists and Architects Collaborate, 11.
53. “MIT Opens New Media Lab Complex.”
54. Brand, How Buildings Learn, 53.
55. Wershler, Darren et al, “An Interview with Greg Tucker.”
57. Alexander, A Pattern Language, 718.
58. Wershler et al, “Interview with Ethan Zuckerman.”
60. Alexander, A Pattern Language, 621; for further analysis of contemporary labs’ space and architecture, see also Charlotte Klonk’s New Laboratories: Historical and Critical Perspectives on Contemporary Developments.
61. The Media Archaeology Lab (MAL) at the University of Colorado Boulder is driven by a similar philosophy to the MAF and also has a similar history with and relation to its inherited space. For more on the MAL, see Lori Emerson’s “The Media Archaeology Lab as Platform for Undoing and Reimagining Media History” and “As If, or, Using Media Archaeology to Reimagine Past, Present, and Future: An Interview with Lori Emerson.”
62. Wershler et al, “An Interview with Wolfgang Ernst.”
64. Ernst, Digital Media and the Archive, 55.
65. Alexander, A Pattern Language, 774.
66. Wershler et al, “An Interview with Wolfgang Ernst.”
67. Emerson, “Archives, Materiality, and the ‘Agency of the Machine.’