1 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2012 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2014).
2 Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: New Press, 2012).
3 Theo Douglas, “Chicago Police Cut Crime with Major Upgrades to Analytics and Field Technology,” Government Technology, January 23, 2018.
5 For half a century, law enforcement has been the fastest rising expenditure in most state budgets in the United States, increasing by more than 1,000 percent (compared to nearly 450 percent in state and local spending on education during this period). Amanda Petteruti and Nastassia Walsh, Moving Target: A Decade of Resistance to the Prison Industrial Complex (Washington, DC: Justice Policy Institute, 2008).
6 Information capitalists are understood in this book in relation what is commonly called informational economy, an economy characterized by agents who depend on the ability to generate, process, and efficiently apply information bits. This definition is taken from Castells. The present book understands information technology companies, telecommunications firms, engineers, programmers, professional researchers, and many others to operate in this fraction’s orbit. Manuel Castells, The Rise of Network Society: The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture, vol. 1 (1996; repr., Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2000).
7 I use digitization in a general sense to mean the implementation of computer software and hardware into extant social practices, and the practices that arise as a result. This is not meant to suggest that these practices are ever fully automated.
8 Robinson Meyer, “The Big Money in Police Body Cameras,” Atlantic, April 30, 2015.
9 Alain Touraine, The Post-industrial Society: Tomorrow’s Social History—Classes, Conflicts and Culture in the Programmed Society (New York: Random House, 1971). Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1973). Castells, Rise of Network Society.
10“Dark Side of the Boom,” Wired, November 1, 1998; Manuel Castells, End of Millennium: The Information Age—Economy, Society, and Culture (Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010).
11 See, e.g., Julia Angwin et al., “Machine Bias,” Pro Publica, May 23, 2016. Cathy O’Neil, Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy (New York: Crown, 2016). Andrew Gunthrie Ferguson, The Rise of Big Data Policing: Surveillance, Race, and the Future of Law Enforcement (New York: New York University Press, 2017).
12 W. E. B. Du Bois, “Die Negerfrage in Den Vereinigten Staaten,” New Centennial Review 6, no. 3 (1906); Black Reconstruction in America: 1860–1880 (1935; repr., New York: Free Press, 1998).
13 Cedric Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000). This book also draws on Theodore Allen, The Invention of the White Race (London: Verso, 1994); Clyde Woods, Development Arrested: The Blues and Plantation Power in the Mississippi Delta (London: Verso, 2000). Stuart Hall, Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London: Sage, 1997). Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race, and Class (London: Women’s Press, 1982). Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery (1944; repr., Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994).
14 There are too many influential works to enumerate here. Some key texts in conceptualization of this book include Ruth Wilson Gilmore, “Fatal Couplings of Power and Difference: Notes on Racism and Geography,” Professional Geographer 54, no. 1 (2002): 15–24; Joy James, Resisting State Violence: Radicalism, Gender, and Race in U.S. Culture (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996); Jodi Melamed, Represent and Destroy: Rationalizing Violence in the New Racial Capitalism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011); Melamed, “Racial Capitalism,” Journal of the Critical Ethnic Studies Association 1, no. 1 (2015): 76–85; Alexander G. Weheliye, Habeas Viscus: Racializing Assemblages, Biopolitics, and Black Feminist Theories of the Human (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2014); Lisa Marie Cacho, Social Death: Racialized Rightlessness and the Criminalization of the Unprotected (New York: New York University Press, 2012); A. Naomi Paik, Rightlessness: Testimony and Redress in U.S. Prison Camps since World War II (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016); Nada Elia et al., eds., Critical Ethnic Studies: A Reader (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2016); Achille Mbembe, “Necropolitics,” Public Culture 15, no. 1 (2003): 11–40; Iyko Day, Alien Capital: Asian Racialization and the Logic of Settler Colonial Capitalism (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2016); Alyosha Goldstein, Formations of United States Colonialism (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2014); and Denise Ferreira da Silva, Toward a Global Idea of Race (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007).
15 Alexander Galloway and Eugene Thacker, The Exploit: A Theory of Networks (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007). Gilles Deleuze, “Postscript on the Societies of Control,” October 59 (1992); Jean Baudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995); Alexander Galloway, Protocol: How Control Exists after Decentralization (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2006). McKenzie Wark, A Hacker Manifesto (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004). Seb Franklin, Control: Digitality as Cultural Logic (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2015).
16 Department of Justice, State and Federal Corrections Information Systems: An Inventory of Data Elements and an Assessment of Reporting Capabilities (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1998).
17 The Black Codes were a series of laws passed in former slave states in the U.S. South in the mid-1860s. Typical laws deprived the suffrage of blacks, prohibited them from owning land, and authorized their forced unpaid labor for vagrancy. The book draws from Lawrence Lessig’s discussion of code as law. Lessig’s study argues that code regulates not only cyberspace but also space, time, and human subjects. See Lessig, Code: And Other Laws of Cyberspace (New York: Basic Books, 1999).
18 See David Theo Goldberg, The Racial State (Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001). Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s (New York: Routledge, 1994).
19 For a comprehensive study of racialized criminalization in the United States, see Coramae Richey Mann, Unequal Justice: A Question of Color (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993).
20 The Court of Indian Offenses criminalized indigenous social and medical practices to invalidate native land uses and privatize indigenous lands by force. The country’s first drug prohibition law, the Opium Exclusion Act (1909), was devised to manage Chinese immigrants who were perceived as threats to white workforces. Rising levels of white unemployment during the Great Depression sparked the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act (1937) to criminalize Mexican farmworkers and brought new border technologies into existence, such as observation towers, radio transmitters, and radio-equipped gyrocopters.
21 The book’s conceptualization of the administrative state is drawn from the strategic relational theory developed by Nicos Poulantzas. Apparatuses of the state, such as the police, educational system, or social welfare agencies, expose the constant conflict between social classes. Poulantzas, State, Power, Socialism (London: Verso, 2000). Bob Jessop, State Power (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008).
22 Giorgio Agamben, What Is an Apparatus? (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2009), 14.
23 For instance, political scientist Virginia Eubanks has demonstrated how the introduction of data analytics to the welfare apparatus was prompted by reactionaries against the welfare rights movement. Eubanks, Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2018).
24 This phase of modern policing was also central to the construction of homo economicus in continental Europe, as it involved documenting the circulation and consumption of commodities, enumerating populations, measuring their productivity, and rating their quality of life. Mark Neocleous, The Fabrication of Social Order: A Critical Theory of Police Power (London: Pluto Press, 2000). Michel Foucault, Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège de France 1977–1978 (New York: Picador, 2009).
25 From the seventeenth century onward, statistics have been instrumental in the nation form’s social management techniques: Statistiken were indispensable to German cameralism, les statistiques were a core theme in the rise of Napoleonic France and the moral sciences of André-Michel Guerry and Antoine Destutt de Tracy, statistica were crucial to the unification and liberalization of the Italian state, and statistical methods drawn from mercantilist and Malthusian population studies were key in the creation of Britain’s Poor Union Board and Board of Trade. See, e.g., R. S. N. Pillai and V. Bagavathi, Statistics (Theory and Practice) (New Delhi: S Chand, 2008).
26 Robert Nichols, “The Colonialism of Incarceration,” Radical Philosophy Review 17, no. 2 (2014): 435–55.
27 The Posse Comitatus Act (1878) was passed to limit the deployment of national military forces in domestic affairs. Many critical criminologists point to the Regan administration’s War on Drugs as a watershed moment in the corrosion of the bill.
28 Rashad Shabazz, Spatializing Blackness: The Architectures of Confinement and Black Masculinity in Chicago (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2015). Katherine McKittrick, Demonic Grounds: Black Women and the Cartographies of Struggle (Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2006). Woods, Development Arrested.
29 Francesca Musiani, “La Gouvernance Des Algorithmes,” Internet Policy Review 2, no. 3 (2013): 1–8.
30 It is worth noting that PredPol is based in a city where blacks are thirteen times more likely to be arrested than whites. P. Jeffrey Brantingham, “The Logic of Data Bias and Its Impact on Place-Based Predictive Policing,” Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 15 (2018): 473–86; P. Jeffrey Brantingham, Matthew Valasik, and George Mohler, “Does Predictive Policing Lead to Biased Arrests? Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial,” Statistics and Public Policy 5, no. 1 (2018): 1–6.
31 No data produced by the police apparatus, not even emergency call or victim data, obviate the policies and practices that presuppose their existence. In fact, the Bureau of Justice Statistics’s 1973 introduction of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) was the result of political efforts to mobilize the public against an unquestionably racialized “public enemy number one.” And insofar as the NCVS defined victimization to legitimize Nixon’s catastrophic War on Drugs, it also helped reinforce the notion that victimhood is an individual, rather than social, phenomenon. See Brian Jordan Jefferson, “Digitize and Punish: Computerized Crime Mapping and Racialized Carceral Power in Chicago,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 35, no. 5 (2017): 775–96; Jefferson, “Predictable Policing: Predictive Crime Mapping and Geographies of Policing and Race,” Annals of Association of American Geographers 1, no. 108 (2018): 1–16.
32 Andrew Gunthrie Ferguson, The Rise of Big Data Policing: Surveillance, Race, and the Future of Law Enforcement (New York: New York University Press, 2017). Ric Simmons, “Quantifying Criminal Procedure: How to Unlock the Potential of Big Data in Our Criminal Justice System,” Michigan State Review 2016 (2016): 947.
33 Norbert Weiner defined information as a function of organization, structure, and functionality; Russell Ackoff postulated data as the cell form of information, knowledge, and ultimately wisdom; and Luciano Floridi theorized information as an abstract entity endowed with its own structured data and program logic. Weiner, Cybernetics; or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (New Orleans, La.: Quid Pro, 2015). Ackoff, “From Data to Wisdom,” Journal of Applied Systems Analysis 16, no. 1 (1989)3–9. Floridi, “What Is the Philosophy of Information?,” Metaphilosophy 33, no. 1/2 (2002): 123–45.
34 Ian Hacking, “Styles of Scientific Thinking or Reasoning: A New Analytical Tool for Historians and Philosophers of the Sciences,” in Trends in the Historiography of Science, ed. Kostas Gavroglu, Y. Christianidis, and Efthymios Nicolaidis, 31–48 (Boston: Springer, 1994). Rob Kitchin, The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences (London: Sage, 2014). Lisa Gitelman, “Raw Data” Is an Oxymoron (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2013). Andrew Iliadis and Federica Russo, “Critical Data Studies: An Introduction,” Big Data and Society 3, no. 2 (2016): 1–7.
35 Data scientist Doug Laney’s definition, often referred to as the three Vs (volume, velocity, variety) of big data, is the most widespread definition in data sciences. More recently, a fourth V, veracity, has been added to this increasingly common definition of big data. Of course, the opportunities for misinformation afforded by big data run against this addition. Recognizing the effect of commodity logics on data production lends depth to Laney’s definition of big data as being churned out in extraordinary volumes, circulated at extraordinary velocities, and produced with extraordinary variety. In terms of volume, the surplus taken from the production and sale of hardware and software is inserted into the next round of production, which results in reproduction on an extended scale. The more hardware and software that is sold (and used), the more digital data that will exist. Big data travel with incredible velocity, but technical explanations only tell part of the story. From the perspective of companies, the time hardware and software spends circulating from manufacturer to retailer to consumer is wasteful, as the products yield no value during these intervals. Companies overcome this by constantly bombarding us with a variety of products on staggered cycles to decrease such unproductive intervals. Faster devices are constantly presented as reasons to discard older, slower ones. Laney’s three Vs are thus partially determined by another V, the valorization of capital. Laney, “3d Data Management: Controlling Data Volume, Velocity, and Variety,” META Group, http://blogs.gartner.com/doug-laney/files/2012/01/ad949-3D-Data-Management-Controlling-Data-Volume-Velocity-and-Variety.pdf.
36 See Kitchin’s discussion of “data ontologies” in Data Revolution.
37 Specifically, this book builds on the work of Ida B. Wells, W. E. B. Du Bois, Stuart Hall et al., Khalil Gibran Muhammad, and Simone Browne’s recent pathbreaking work; all explore relations between the production and interpretation of racial differentiation. Wells, Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases (Scotts Valley, Calif., 2017); Du Bois, “Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro. By Frederick L. Hoffman, F.S.S.,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 9 (1897). Hall et al., Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State, and Law and Order (London: Palgrave, 1978). Muhammad, The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011). Browne, “Digital Epidermalization: Race, Identity and Biometrics,” Critical Sociology 36, no. 1 (2009): 131–50.
38 Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (New York: Routledge, 2000).
39 Lisa Lowe, The Intimacies of Four Continents (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2015).
40 Such databases not only abnormalize nonwhite subjects but also help produce white subjects. For instance, in the United States, historian Mae M. Ngai illustrates how a similar Registry Act in 1929 served as a medium of rendering thousands of illegal Eastern and Southern Europeans full rights-bearing “whites.” The act legalized the status of “law-abiding aliens” and allowed them to register as permanent residents for a fee. The Registry Act, Ngai observes, was a technology for differentiating “white” permanent residents from Mexican “illegal aliens.” Ngai, Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004).
41 Kim TallBear, “Narratives of Race and Indigeneity in the Genographic Project,” Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics 35, no. 3 (2007): 412–24.
42 Karl Marx, Capital, Volume 2: A Critique of Political Economy (New York: Penguin, 1993). David Harvey, “Globalization and the ‘Spatial Fix,’” Geographische revue 3, no. 2 (2001): 22–30.
43 Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Oppression in Globalizing California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007). Loïc Wacquant, “From Slavery to Mass Incarceration: Rethinking the ‘Race Question’ in the US,” New Left Review 13 (2002): 41–60; Bruce Western and Katherine Beckett, “How Unregulated Is the U.S. Labor Market? The Penal System as a Labor Market Institution,” American Journal of Sociology 104 (1999): 1030–60.
44 Stephen Graham and Simon Marvin, Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition (London: Routledge, 2001).
45 The book draws heavily from carceral geographers, including Brett Story, Prison Land: Mapping Carceral Power across Neoliberal America (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2019); Anne Bonds, “‘Profit from Punishment’? The Politics of Prisons, Poverty and Neoliberal Restructuring in the Rural American Northwest,” Antipode 38, no. 1 (2006): 174–77; Dominique Moran, “Leaving Behind the ‘Total Institution’? Teeth, Transcarceral Spaces and (Re)Inscription of the Formerly Incarcerated Body,” Gender, Place, and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 21, no. 1 (2014): 35–51; Gilmore, Golden Gulag; Dominique Moran, Nick Gill, and Deirdre Conlon, eds., Carceral Spaces: Mobility and Agency in Imprisonment and Migrant Detention (Farnham, U.K.: Ashgate, 2013); Shabazz, Spatializing Blackness; and Jack Norton, “Little Siberia, Star of the North: The Political Economy of Prison Dreams in the Adirondacks,” in Historical Geographies of Prisons: Unlocking the Usable Carceral Past, ed. Karen Morin and Dominique Moran, 168–84 (New York: Routledge, 2015).
46 Laura Kurgan, Sarah Williams, David Reinfurt, and Eric Cadora, The Pattern (New York: Spatial Information Design Lab, 2008).
47 Katherine Beckett and Noami Murakawa, “Mapping the Shadow Carceral State: Toward an Institutionally Capacious Approach to Punishment,” Theoretical Criminology 16, no. 2 (2012): 221–44.
48 Political economy is used throughout this book to mean the production, distribution, and consumption of the material and symbolic means required for social reproduction. These means include basic life necessities, cultural practice, housing, medical access, wages, social status, and an endless list of others. For a review of intersectional analysis, see Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought (2000; repr., London: Routledge, 2009), and Patricia Hill Collins and Sirma Bilge, Intersectionality (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2016).
49 For instance, the subject’s experience with discrimination cannot be fully understood only by considering racism. One would have also to consider how national citizenship, gender, and socioeconomic status come into play, among other factors.
50 Joel A. Tarr, Thomas Finholt, and David Goodman, “The City and the Telegraph: Urban Telecommunications in the Pre-telephone Era,” Urban History 14, no. 1 (1987): 5–18.
51 Bernard Harcourt, Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Acturial Age (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).
1. Computation and Criminalization
1 Louis S. Robinson, “History of Criminal Statistics (1908–1933),” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 24, no. 1 (1933): 125–39. Michael D. Maltz, “Crime Statistics: A Historical Perspective” Crime and Delinquency 21, no. 3 (1977): 32–40.
2 Robinson, “History of Criminal Statistics.”
3 Daniel L. Cork and Janet L. Lauritsen, Modernizing Crime Statistics: Report 1—Defining and Classifying Crime (Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2016).
4 Quotation from Cork and Lauritsen, 13.
5 See, e.g., Jed Handelsman Shugerman, “The Creation of the Department of Justice: Professionalization without Civil Rights of Civil Service,” Stanford Law Review 66, no. 121 (2014).
6 Herman Hollerith, “An Electrical Tabulating System,” The Quarterly 10, no. 16 (1889). Hollerith, “The Electrical Tabulating Machine,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (1894): 678–89.
7 Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation (New York: Crown, 2001). Eubanks, Automating Inequality.
8 Frederick L. Hoffman, Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro (New York: Macmillan, 1896), 2.
9 Khalil Gibran Muhammad, The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011).
11 John Koren, “Criminal Statistics Report of Committee No. 3 of the Institute,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 5, no. 5 (1915): 653–59. Edwin Sutherland and C. C. Van Vechten Jr., “Reliability of Criminal Statistics,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 25, no. 2 (1934): 10–20.
12 Maltz, “Crime Statistics.”
13 See Craig Uchida, Carol Bridgeforth, and Charles Wellford, Law Enforcement Statistics: The State of the Art (College Park, Md.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1984).
14 Samuel Walker, A Critical History of Police Reform (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1977).
15 International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), ed., Uniform Crime Reporting (New York: J. J. Little and Ives, 1929).
16 Lawrence Rosen, “The Creation of the Uniform Crime Report: The Role of Social Science,” Social Science History 19, no. 2 (1995): 215–38.
17 IACP, Uniform Crime Reporting, 118.
19 See Walker, A Critical History of Police Reform.
20 Wickersham Commission, National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement: Report on the Cost of Crime (Washington, D.C.: Wickersham Commission, 1931).
21 Quotation from Gerda W. Ray, “From Cossack to Trooper: Manliness, Police Reform, and the State,” Journal of Social History 28, no. 3 (1995): 570.
22 Charles Jaret, “Troubled by Newcomers: Anti-immigrant Attitudes and Action during Two Eras of Mass Immigration to the United States,” Journal of American Ethnic History 18, no. 3 (1999): 9–39.
23 Hans Vought, “Division and Reunion: Woodrow Wilson, Immigration, and the Myth of American Unity,” Journal of American Ethnic History 13, no. 3 (1994): 24–50.
24 Wickersham Commission, Report on the Cost of Crime.
25 Kenneth J. Peak and Tamara D. Madensen-Herold, Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2018).
26 William Bopp, O. W. Wilson and the Search for a Police Profession (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1977).
27 Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics: Their Proper Use (Washington, D.C.: FBI, 2011).
28 Loomis Mayfield, Maureen Hellwig, and Brian Banks, The Chicago Response to Urban Problems: Building University/Community Collaborations (Chicago: Great Cities Institute, 1998).
29 Zaragosa Vargas, Crucible of Struggle: A History of Mexican Americans from the Colonial Period to the Present Era (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
30 About 90 percent of Chicagoans in the Black Belt were black in the 1920s and 1930s. St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton, Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City (New York: Harcourt, 1945). These enclaves exceeded the city’s recommended residential capacity by 87,300. Ninety thousand people were living per square mile in the Black Belt, compared to only twenty thousand per square mile in majority white neighborhoods. The mortality rate of the former was twice that of the latter. About 60 percent of the white workforce was employed in skilled sectors, compared to 19 percent of the black male workforce and 9 percent of the black female workforce; 90 percent of black female workers and 73 percent of black male workers were in semi- and low-skilled sectors, compared to 35 percent of white female workers and 34 percent of white male workers. Drake and Cayton.
31 Robert Park, “The Concept of Position in Sociology,” Papers and Proceedings of the American Sociological Society 20 (1926): 1–14.
32 Michael Friendly and Nicolas de Sainte Agathe, “André-Michel Guerry’s Ordonnateur Statistique: The First Statistical Calculator?,” The American Statistician 66, no. 3 (2012): 195–200. Guerry’s cartographical approach reached its apex in 1864 with his wide-spanning study on crime and “moral statistics,” which represented data from some 226,000 crime cases in England and France and 85,000 suicide records using 17 statistical maps.
33 Renowned sociologist Robert Sampson identified work by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay as the “most fundamental sociological approaches to the study of crime and delinquency.” Robert Sampson and W. Byron Groves, “Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social Disorganization Theory,” American Journal of Sociology 94 (1989): 774–802.
34 Robert Park, “The City: Suggestions for the Investigation of Human Behaviour in an Urban Environment,” American Journal of Sociology 20 (1915): 577–612.
35 Robert Park, Ernest Burgess, and Roderick McKenzie, The City (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1925).
36 Ernest Burgess, “The Growth of the City,” in Park et al., The City, 47–62.
37 Martin Bulmer, “The Early Institutional Establishment of Social Science Research: The Local Community Research Committee at the University of Chicago, 1923–30,” Minerva 18, no. 1 (1980): 51–110. Chicago School of Sociology: Institutionalization, Diversity and the Rise of Sociological Research (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985).
38 Namely Frye v. United States, 293 F. 1013 (D.C. Cir 1923).
39 See John F. Fox Jr., The Birth of the FBI’s Technical Laboratory—1924 to 1935 (Washington, D.C.: FBI, n.d.).
40 Allan Sekula, “The Body and the Archive,” October 39 (1986): 3–64.
41 “Washington Develops a World Clearing House for Identifying Criminals by Fingerprints,” New York Times, August 10, 1932. Ralph Ioimo, Introduction to Criminal Justice Information Systems (Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 2016).
42 U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, The Economic Progress of Black Men in America (Washington, D.C.: CCR, 1986).
43 Daniel Patrick Moynihan, The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1965).
44 In fact, in 1950, none of the major cities in the United States were classified as majority black. By 1990, fourteen cities fit this profile, and another ten were on the cusp. In terms of smaller cities, two were classified as majority black in 1950, compared to forty in 1990. See David Wilson, Inventing Black-on-Black Violence: Discourse, Space, and Representation (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2005).
45 Elizabeth Hinton, From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2017).
46 Jerome H. Skolnick, The Politics of Protest: A Report Submitted by Jerome H. Skolnick, Director Task Force on Violent Aspects of Protest and Confrontation of the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (New York: Ballantine Books, 1969).
47 Richard Nixon, “What Has Happened to America?,” Reader’s Digest, October 1967.
48 Melvin Conway, Datamation 14, no. 2831 (1968).
49 Alexander Joseph, “A Progress Report: A Study of Needs and the Development of Curricula in the Field of Forensic Science,” in Law Enforcement Science and Technology, ed. S. A. Yefsky, 251–56 (London: Academic Press, 1967).
50 O. W. Wilson, Police Administration (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963).
51 The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society: A Report by the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967).
52 Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965, 89th Cong., s. 1792 and s. 1825 (1965).
53 Yefsky, Law Enforcement Science and Technology, preface.
54 Don M. Gottfredsen and Kelley B. Ballard Jr., “A National Uniform Parole Reporting System,” in Yefsky, Law Enforcement Science and Technology, 221–28. E. M. Butler, “The Examination of Paint with the Electron Microbe,” in Yefsky, 347–52.
55 Niklas Luhmann’s fetishization of “the system” manifested in his notion that social systems were operationally bounded off from their surrounding environments. Luhmann, “The World Society as a Social System,” International Journal of General Systems 8, no. 3 (1982): 131–38. Eric Paras offers an illuminating account of Foucault’s preoccupation with “systematicity,” albeit without fully exploring how the rise of systems theory influenced Left Bank intellectuals during the 1960s. Paras, Foucault 2.0: Beyond Power and Knowledge (New York: Other Press, 2006).
56 Daniel Glaser, “The Assessment of Correctional Effectiveness,” in Yefsky, Law Enforcement Science and Technology, 181.
57 Larry P. Polansky, Computer Use in the Court: Planning, Procurement and Implementation Consideration (Washington, D.C.: American University Law Institute, 1978), 112.
58 Paul M. Whisenand, “Automated Police Information Systems: An Argument for Vertical and Horizontal Integration,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 62, no. 3 (1972): 422–29.
59 Ioimo, Introduction to Criminal Justice Information Systems, for instance, traces the rise of communication centers throughout urban police departments to the development of CAD systems.
60 Yefsky, Law Enforcement Science and Technology.
61 Edward Comber, “Activation of the California Criminal Justice Information Design Study,” in Yefsky, Law Enforcement Science and Technology, 555.
62 E. Ray Knickel, “Car Locator Uses and the Patrol Car Emitter-Call Box Sensor Technique,” in Yefsky, Law Enforcement of Science and Technology, 904.
63 Maureen Brown, “Criminal Justice Discovers Information Technology,” in Criminal Justice 2000, ed. Winnie Reed and Laura Winterfield, 219–59 (Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 2000).
64 J. H. Wegstein and J. Rafferty, “Machine Oriented Fingerprint Classification System,” in Yefsky, Law Enforcement Science and Technology, 459–66.
65 E. F. Codd, “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks,” Communications of the ACM 13, no. 6 (1970): 377–87.
66 See Ioimo, Introduction to Criminal Justice Information Systems.
67 Glaser, “Assessment of Correctional Effectiveness.”
68 Marguerite Q. Warren, “The Community Treatment Project: History and Prospects,” in Yefsky, Law Enforcement Science and Technology, 193.
69 Harland Hill, “Some Proposals for the Developent of Information Systems in the Field of Corrections,” in Yefsky, Law Enforcement Science and Technology.
70 Hill, 211.
71 This gravitation toward the micro scale crystallized in Jane Jacobs, who postulated that increases in urban crime indexes were due to an erosion of “intricate, almost unconscious, network[s] of voluntary controls and standards” on city sidewalks. Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961), 32.
72 Specifically, it analyzed assault, auto theft, business burglary, daytime residence burglary, nighttime residence burglary, purse snatching, robbery, and theft from auto. Phillip S. Mitchell, “Optimal Selection of Police Patrol Beats,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 63, no. 4 (1973): 577–84.
73 Stan Openshaw, The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (Norwich, England: Geo Books, 1983).
74 Lawrence W. Sherman, “Police Crackdowns: Initial and Residual Deterrence,” Crime and Justice 12 (1990): 1–48. David Weisburd and Lorraine Green Mazerolle, “Measuring Immediate Spatial Displacement: Methodological Issues and Problems,” in Crime and Place: Crime Prevention Studies, ed. David Weisburd and John Eck, 349–61 (Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press, 1995).
75 Ronald V. Clark. “Technology, Criminology and Crime Science,” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 10, no. 1 (2004): 55–63.
76 By the dawn of Nixon’s War on Drugs, some sociologists were calculating how magnetic certain microspaces were to potential offenders. For some criminologists, certain nodes and pathways in urban networks were believed to radiate cues that signaled opportune conditions for lawbreakers. Crime events were understood as surface effects of convergences between potential offenders and microspaces that transmit their vulnerability to criminal invaders. Paul Brantingham and Patricia Brantingham, “The Spatial Patterning of Burglary,” Howard Journal of Penology and Crime Prevention 14, no. 2 (1975): 11–23. P. Jeffrey Brantingham and Patricia Brantingham, Environmental Criminology (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1981). Paul Brantingham and Patricia Brantingham, “Mobility, Notoriety, and Crime: A Study of Crime Patterns in Urban Nodal Points,” Journal of Environmental Studies 11 (1982): 89. Paul Brantingham and Patricia Brantingham, “How Public Transit Feeds Private Crime: Notes on the Vancouver ‘Sky Train’ Experience,” Security Journal 2, no. 2 (1991): 91–95.
77 Patricia Brantingham and P. Jeffrey Brantingham, “Criminality of Place: Crime Generators and Crime Attractors,” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 3, no. 3 (1995): 5–26. Lawrence W. Sherman, Patrick R. Gartin, and Michael E. Buerger, “Hot Spots of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities and the Criminology of Place,” Criminology 27, no. 1 (1989): 27–56.
78 Richard Frank, Vahid Dabbaghian, Andrew Reid, Suraj Singh, Jonathan Cinnamon, and Patricia Brantingham, “Power of Criminal Attractors: Modeling the Pull of Activity Nodes,” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14, no. 1 (2011): Article 6.
79 Barry Fosberg, “Ripeness and Hot Spots in Time: Possible Futures in Micro Place-Based Policing,” Crime Mapping and Analysis News, no. 3 (2015). Metaphors of comets (crime patterns that trail across space in a linear manner), pulsars (single areas that oscillate between high and low crime rates), binaries (a pair of locations that alternate between high and low crime indexes in a synchronous fashion), and constellations (wider areas that cycle between crime indexes in a synchronous fashion) were deployed to explain why crime rates are higher in some areas than in others.
80 See Nadine Schuurman, “Formalization Matters: Critical GIS and Ontology Research,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 96, no. 4 (2006): 726–39.
81 Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2002), 4, 12.
82 Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man (1964; repr., Boston: Beacon Press, 1991), 97.
83 Loïc Wacquant, Prisons of Poverty (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009).
84 Marc Mauer and Ryan S. King, A 25-Year Quagmire: The War on Drugs and Its Impact on American Society (Washington, D.C.: Sentencing Project, 2007).
85 Noami Murakawa, The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).
86 Sentencing Project, “Racial Disparities,” https://www.sentencingproject.org/issues/racial-disparity/.
87 Muhammad, Condemnation of Blackness.
2. Dreams of Digital Carceral Power
1 Engineer Gordon E. Moore’s law states that the number of components, that is, transistors, in integrated electronics such as microchips would double annually, thereby increasing memory capacity at exponential rates. Electrical engineer Mark Kryder found that the storage capacity on magnetic disks increased at an even faster rate than the integrated electronics discussed by Moore.
2 Manuel Castells, The Rise of Network Society: The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture, vol. 1 (1996; repr., Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2000), 411.
3 William Julius Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).
4 Loïc Wacquant, Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality (London: Polity, 2008). Wilson, Truly Disadvantaged.
5 See Gilmore, Golden Gulag. Bruce Western and Katherine Beckett, “How Unregulated Is the U.S. Labor Market? The Penal System as a Labor Market Institution,” American Journal of Sociology 104 (1999): 1030–60. Noami Murakawa, The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014). Michael Tonry, Malign Neglect: Race, Crime, and Punishment in America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).
6 Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements (New York: Grove Press, 1994).
7 Malcolm X, 66.
8 Federal Bureau of Investigation, (COINTELPRO) Black Extremist (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967).
9 In 1971, Nixon’s National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals recommended standardized criminal justice information systems to rectify the situation. These databases proceeded to slowly spread through large departments in the mid-1980s before exploding throughout departments in the following decade. NACCJSG, The Criminal Justice Standards and Goals of the National Advisory Commission Digested from a National Strategy to Reduce Crime (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Joint Council of the Criminal Justice System, n.d.). Christopher J. Harris, “Police and Soft Technology: How Information Technology Contributes to Police Decision Making,” in From the New Technology of Crime, Law and Social Control, ed. John Byrne and Donald J. Rebovich, 153–84 (Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press/Willow Tree Press, 2007).
10 Mitchell, “Optimal Selection.”
11 David Weisburd and J. Thomas McEwen, “Introduction: Crime Mapping and Crime Prevention,” in Crime Mapping and Crime Prevention, ed. David Weisburd and J. Thomas McEwen, 1–26 (Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press, 1998).
12 Wacquant, Urban Outcasts.
13 See Darnell F. Hawkins, Samuel Myers, and Randolph Stone, eds., Crime Control and Social Justice: The Delicate Balance (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003).
14 Julie Barrows and C. Ronald Huff, “Gangs and Public Policy: Constructing and Deconstructing Gang Databases,” Criminology and Public Policy 8, no. 4 (2009): 675–703.
15 Claire M. Johnson, Barbara A. Webster, Edward F. Connors, and Diana J. Saenz, “Gang Enforcement Problems and Strategies: National Survey Findings,” Journal of Gang Research 3, no. 1 (1995): 1–18.
16 Richard V. Ericson and Kevin D. Haggerty, The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006).
17 Peter Kraska, ed., Militarizing the American Criminal Justice System: The Changing Roles of the Armed Forces and the Police (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2001).
18 Thomas J. Cowper and Michael E. Buerger, Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology (Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2003).
19 Susan C. Hammen (Smith), “IACA Welcomes the New Crime Analysis and Mapping News,” Crime Mapping and Analysis News 1, no. 15 (2014).
20 Charles Pinderhughes, “Toward a New Theory of Internal Colonialism,” Socialism and Democracy 25 (2011): 235–56.
21 Sentencing Project, “Racial Disparities.”
22 See David Wilson, Inventing Black-on-Black Violence: Discourse, Space, and Representation (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2005).
23 Amnesty International, Not Part of My Sentence: Violations of the Human Rights of Women in Custody (London: Amnesty International, 1999).
24 Ted S. Storey, “When Intervention Works: Judge Morris E. Lasker and New York City Jails,” in Courts, Corrections, and the Constitution: The Impact of Judicial Intervention on Prisons and Jails, ed. John J. Di Iulio, 138–72 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990).
25 Attica ended with state troopers putting nearly three dozen inmates to death. Moreover, the increasingly organized and politicized nature of the prison revolts precipitated a shift from medicalized penal models devised to “correct” prisoners to sociologist Robert Martinson’s punitive models devised to break them. This dual movement of penology and politics crystallized in the anti–Black Panther Party (BPP) doctrine of Ronald Reagan during his gubernatorial campaign in California. Reagan mocked the BPP’s Ten-Point Platform for being “provoked by a social philosophy that saw man as primarily a creature of his material environment [and] criminals as the unfortunate products of poor socioeconomic conditions or an underprivileged upbringing.” Reagan countered structural interpretations of his domestic policy through an explosive cocktail of market fundamentalism mixed with weaponized criminal justice. Angela Y. Davis—herself imprisoned for sixteen months as a result of these charades—described the inherent contradictions in this colonial administrative configuration. One one hand, the War on Crime buried those who challenged state-organized repression in “America’s dungeons,” but on the other hand, these dungeons were fertile ground for radicalization. See Robert Martinson, “What Works?—Questions and Answers about Prison Reform,” The Public Interest, Spring 1974. Ronald Reagan, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Ronald Reagan: Containing the Public Messages, Speeches, and Statements of the President: Book II—July 3 to December 31, 1982 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982). Angela Y. Davis, “Political Prisoners, Prisons and Black Liberation,” in If They Come in the Morning . . . : Voices of Resistance (New York: Verso, 2016).
26 Search Group Inc., CIMIS National Contact List (Sacramento, Calif.: National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics, 1980).
27 Brant Serxner and James R. Coldren Jr., CIMIS Operations Report: Cook County Department of Corrections (Chicago: City of Chicago, 1982).
28 Donice Neal, “Technology and the Supermax Prison,” in Supermax Prisons: Beyond the Rock, ed. Donice Neal, 53–66 (Lanham, Md.: American Correctional Association, 2003).
30 Brian A. Jackson, Joe Russo, John S. Hollywood, Dulani Woods, Richard Silberglitt, George B. Drake, John S. Shaffer, Mikhail Zaydman, and Brian G. Chow, “Fostering Innovation in Community and Institutional Corrections: Identifying High-Priority Technology and Other Needs for the U.S. Corrections Sector,” in Priority Criminal Justice Needs Initiative (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2015).
31 Allan Turner and Duane Blackburn, “Biometrics: Separating Myth from Reality,” Corrections Today 64, no. 7 (2002): 110–11.
32 Association of State Correctional Administrators, Corrections Program Office, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Institute of Justice, State and Federal Corrections Information Systems: An Inventory of Data Elements and an Assessment of Reporting Capabilities (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1998).
33 Stan Stojkovic, David Kalinich, and John Klofas, Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 2014).
34 Keith Harries, Mapping Crime: Principle and Practice (Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 1999).
35 Sarah V. Hart, “Making Prisons Safer through Technology,” Corrections Today 65, no. 2 (2003): 26.
36 TechBeat, CORMAP It (Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 2002).
37 Jesse Jannetta, CompStat for Corrections (Irvine, Calif.: Center for Evidence-Based Corrections, 2006).
38 Thomas G. Blomberg, Jim Clark, Leslie Hill, Bill Bales, and Karen Mann, Correctional Operations Trend Analysis System (COTAS): An Independent Validation (Tallahassee, Fla.: Florida State University College of Criminology and Criminal Justice and Center for Criminology and Public Policy Research, 2011).
39 Harries, Mapping Crime. April Pattavina, Information Technology and the Criminal Justice System (London: Sage, 2005).
40 Gorge A. Jouganatos and Reginald A. H. Goodfellow, An Inventory Study of the State of California’s Land Holdings (Sacramento: California State University, 2001).
41 Bernard Harcourt, Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006).
42 Susan Turner, James Hess, and Jesse Jannetta, Development of the California Static Risk Assessment Instrument (CSRA) (Irvine: University of California, Irvine Center for Evidence-Based Corrections, 2009). Elyse J. Revere and Mari Curbelo, Alternative-to-Incarceration Information Services End of Year Report: Fiscal Year 2001 (New York: New York City Criminal Justice Agency, 2001).
43 The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory from Multi-Health Systems; the Positive Achievement Change Tool (PACT) from Assessment.com; the Correctional Offender Management Profiling and Alternative Sanctions (COMPAS) from Northpointe Institute of Management; and the Youth Assessment and Screening Instrument from Orbis Partners Inc. are but a few examples.
44 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 2009 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009).
45 Harries, Mapping Crime.
46 Erin L. Bauer, Carol A. Hagen, Angela D. Greene, Scott Crosse, Michele A. Harmon, and Ronald E. Claus, Kiosk Supervision: A Guidebook for Community Corrections Professionals (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2016).
47 Quote from R. K. Schwitzgebel, R. L. Schwitzgebel, W. N. Pahnke, and W. S. Hurd, “A Program of Research in Behavioral Electronics,” Behavioral Science 9 (1964): 233–38.
48 Chris Mai and Ram Subramanian, The Price of Prisons: Examining State Spending Trends, 2010–2015 (New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2017).
49 James Kilgore, Emmett Sanders, and Myaisha Hayes, No More Shackles: Why We Must End the Use of Electronic Monitors for People on Parole (Urbana, Ill.: Center for Media Justice, n.d.).
50 James Kilgore, “Repackaging Mass Incarceration: The Rise of Carceral Humanism and Non-alternative Alternatives,” Counterpunch, June 6, 2014, https://www.counterpunch.org/2014/06/06/repackaging-mass-incarceration/.
51 Ryken Grattet, Joan Petersilia, and Jeffrey Lin, Parole Violations and Revocations in California (Irvine: University of California, Davis, 2008).
52 Rachel Porter, Sophia Lee, and Mary Lutz, Balancing Punishment and Treatment: Alternatives to Incarceration in New York City (New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2002).
53 Douglas Young, Rachel Porter, and Gail A. Caputo, Alternative to Incarceration Programs for Felony Offenders in New York City (New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 1999).
54 William D. Burrell and Robert S. Gable, “From B. F. Skinner to Spiderman to Martha Stewart: The Past, Present, and Future of Electronic Monitoring of Offenders,” Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 46, no. 3/4 (2008): 101–18.
55 Pew Research Center, Use of Electronic Offender-Tracking Devices Expands Sharply (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 2016).
56 Mirko Bagaric, Dan Hunter, and Gabrielle Wolf, “Technological Incarceration and the End of the Prison Crisis,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (forthcoming).
57 ACLU, War Comes Home: The Excessive Militarization of American Policing (New York: ACLU, 2014). ACLU, Alternatives to Immigration Detention: Less Costly and More Humane Than Federal Lock-Up (Washington, D.C.: ACLU, 2014).
58 Steve Polilli, “The High-Tech Court of the Future,” The Compiler 13, no. 1 (1993): 12.
60 Human Rights Watch, Decades of Disparity: Drug Arrests and Race in the United States (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2009).
61 Eric C. Johnson, “Court Automation and Integration: Issues and Technologies,” Technical Bulletin, no. 2 (1997).
62 Ioimo, Introduction to Criminal Justice Information Systems.
63 Colin Reilly and Victor Goldsmith, Rackets: Case Tracking and Mapping System (New York: National Institute of Justice, 1999).
64 Robin Davis, Billie Jo Matlevich, Alexandra Barton, Sara Debus-Sherill, and Emily Niedzwiecki, Research on Videoconferencing at Post-arraignment Release Hearings: Phase I Final Report (Fairfax, Va.: ICF International, 2015).
65 Elizabeth C. Wiggins, Meghan A. Dunn, and George Cort, Federal Judicial Center Survey on Courtroom Technology (Washington, D.C.: Federal Justice Center, 2003).
66 Bureau of Justice Assistance, Report of the National Task Force on Court Automation and Integration (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1999).
67 Laura and John Arnold Foundation, Public Safety Assessment: Risk Factors and Formula (Washington, D.C.: Laura and John Arnold Foundation, 2013–16).
68 In many instances, variables such as alienation, anomie, anger, low education, and unemployment are identified as indicators of criminality. See Stojkovic et al., Criminal Justice Organizations.
69 Danielle Kehl, Priscilla Guo, and Samuel Kessler, “Algorithms in the Criminal Justice System: Assessing the Use of Risk Assessments in Sentencing,” in Responsive Communities Initiative (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Law School, 2017).
70 Ioimo, Introduction to Criminal Justice Information Systems.
71 Julia Angwin, Jeff Larson, Surya Mattu, and Lauren Kirchner, “Machine Bias,” Pro Publica, May 23, 2016.
72 James Bonta and D. A. Andrews, The Psychology of Criminal Conduct (London: Routledge, 2016).
73 Jennifer L. Skeem and Jillian K. Peterson, “Major Risk Factors for Recidivism among Offenders with Mental Illness,” unpublished report, Council of State Governments Report, St. Paul, Minn.
3. A Fully Automated Police Apparatus
1 Lee Brown, Blueprint for the Future: Information and Technology for Community Policing into the 21st Century (New York: NYPD, 1992).
2 See, e.g., Eli B. Silverman, NYPD Battles Crime: Innovative Strategies in Policing (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999). William Bratton, The Turnaround: How America’s Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic (New York: Random House, 1998). Jack Maple and Chris Mitchell, The Crime Fighter: Putting the Bad Guys Out of Business (New York: Doubleday, 2000).
3 Peter K. Manning, The Technology of Policing: Crime Mapping, Information Technology, and the Rationality of Crime Control (New York: NYU Press, 2011).
4 Rashad Shabazz, Spatializing Blackness: The Architectures of Confinement and Black Masculinity in Chicago (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2015).
5 David Harvey, The New Imperialism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).
6 For instance, in 1980, the municipal bond market was worth about $400 billion; by 2014, it was approximately $3.5 trillion. Mark Davidson and Kevin Ward, “Introduction,” in Cities under Austerity: Restructuring the US Metropolis, ed. Mark Davidson and Kevin Ward, 1–26 (New York: SUNY Press, 2018).
7 Moshe Adler, “Why Did New York Workers Loose Ground in the 1990s?,” The Regional Labor Review 5, no. 1 (2002).
8 U.S. Census, Unemployment Rate, by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1980 to 1998 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, 1999).
9 This deviated from trends at the national scale, where 71 percent of people living below the poverty line were categorized as white, 17 percent as black, and nearly 12 percent as latinx that same year. Justine Calcagno, Trends in Poverty Rates among Latinos in New York City and the United States, 1990–2011 (New York: Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies, 2013).
10 Nancy Wackstein, “Memo to Democrats: Housing Won’t Solve Homelessness,” New York Times, July 12, 1992. Dennis Culhane et al., “Public Shelter Admission Rates in Philadelphia and New York City: The Implication of Turnover for Sheltered Population Counts,” Housing Policy Debate 5, no. 2 (1998): 107–40.
11 Manuel Castells, The Informational City: Economic Restructuring and Urban Development (New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 1992).
12 Stephen Graham and Simon Marvin, Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities, and the Urban Condition (London: Routledge, 2001).
13 Jason Bram, “New York City’s Economy before and after September 11,” Current Issues in Economics and Finance 9, no. 2 (2003).
14 Larry Orr, Judith Feins, Robin Jacob, Erik Beecroft, Lisa Sanbonmatsu, Lawrence F. Katz, Jeffrey B. Liebman, and Jeffrey R. Kling, Moving to Opportunity Interim Impacts Evaluation (Washington, D.C.: Office of Policy Development and Research, 2003).
15 U.S. Census, Unemployment Rate.
16 Calcagno, Trends in Poverty Rates.
17 Bram, “New York City’s Economy.”
18 Alex Vitale, “Innovation and Institutionalization: Factors in the Development of ‘Quality of Life’ Policing in New York City,” Policing and Society 15, no. 2 (2005): 99–124.
19 Saskia Sassen, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001).
20 Chicago Police Department [CPD], 1994 Annual Report: A Year in Review (Chicago: CPD, 1995). CPD, 1995 Annual Report: A Year in Review (Chicago: CPD, 1996). CPD, 2008 Annual Report: A Year in Review (Chicago: CPD, 2009). CPD, 2009 Annual Report: A Year in Review (Chicago: CPD, 2010). CPD, 2010 Annual Report: A Year in Review (Chicago: CPD, 2011).
21 Larry Weintraub, “Daley, Martin Disagree on Suspension of Rights,” Chicago Sun-Times, July 13, 1991.
22 The technological basis of the much-studied Social Credit System of policing in Chinese cities is mostly of American origin. In fact, the Communist Party refers to its system as a “marketized solution to punishment.” See Martin Chorzempa, Paul Triolo, and Samm Sacks, China’s Social Credit System: A Mark of Progress or a Threat to Privacy? (Washington, D.C.: Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2018).
23 Brown, Blueprint for the Future.
25 Manning Marable, Beyond Boundaries: The Manning Marable Reader (London: Routledge, 2011).
26 Lee Brown, Policing New York City in the 1990s: The Strategy for Community Policing (New York: NYPD, 1991).
27 Bureau of Justice Assistance, CompStat: Its Origins, Evolution, and Future in Law Enforcement Agencies (Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum, 2013). Vincent Henry, “CompStat Management in the NYPD: Reducing Crime and Improving Quality of Life in New York City,” paper presented at the 129th International Senior Seminar Visiting Experts’ Papers, Tokyo, 2006.
28 Brown, Blueprint for the Future, ix.
29 Brown, vi.
30 Dan Higgins, “Stac Version 4.0 Released,” Compiler 15, no. 1 (1995/1996). Brown, Blueprint for the Future.
31 Michael D. Maltz, Andrew C. Gordon, and Warren Friedman, Mapping Crime in Its Community Setting: Event Geography Analysis (New York: Springer, 2000).
32 Maltz et al., xi.
33 Fran Spielman, “Daley Praises School Bust—Detectors Net Tilden Weapons,” Chicago Sun-Times, March 27, 1991.
34 Matt L. Rodriguez, Together We Can (Chicago: City of Chicago, 1993).
35 Sal Perri, “Law Enforcement and the Information Highway,” Compiler 15, no. 1 (1995/1996).
36 Thomas F. Rich, The Chicago Police Department’s Information Collection for Automated Mapping (ICAM) Program (Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 1996).
37 Richard M. Daley and Matt L. Rodriguez, Fact Sheet: Information Collection for Automated Mapping (ICAM) (Chicago: City of Chicago, 1995). Richard M. Daley, “Talking Points for Mayor Richard M. Daley: ICAM Demonstration in the 14th District,” Chicago, 1995.
38 Richard Pastore, “Chicago Police Department Uses It to Fight Crime, Wins Grand CIO Enterprise Value Award 2004,” CIO, February 15, 2004.
39 Wesley Skogan, Susan M. Hartnett, Jill DuBois, Jason Bennis, and So Young Kim, Policing Smarter through It: Learning from Chicago’s Citizen and Law Enforcement Analysis and Reporting (CLEAR) System (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2003).
40 Skogan et al.
41 Wesley Skogan, Dennis P. Rosenbaum, Susan M. Hartnett, Jill DuBois, Lisa Graziano, and Cody Stephens, CLEAR and I-CLEAR: A Status Report on New Information Technology and Its Impact on Management, the Organization and Crime-Fighting Strategies (Chicago: Chicago Community Policing Evaluation Consortium, 2005).
42 Jonathan Walters, “Clear Connection: A High-Tech Partnership Is Driving Down Crime in Chicago,” Governing, August 2007. With AIRA, pieces of evidence and personal property taken by police were also queriable. CPD personnel working in evidence, forensics, and recovered property can locate items and trace their movement through chains of custody, while also sending and receiving relevant information about those items to the Illinois State Police Laboratory.
43 Dennis P. Rosenbaum and Cody Stephens, Reducing Public Violence and Homicide in Chicago: Strategies and Tactics of the Chicago Police Department (Chicago: Center for Research in Law and Justice, 2005).
44 Sean D. Hamill, “Residents, Police Band Together in Crime Battle,” Chicago Tribune, December 23, 2002.
45 Fran Spielman, “Again, Gang Gunfire Is Answered by Silence from City’s Political Leaders,” Chicago Sun-Times, April 29, 2003. “Daley: Cops Will Go Where Crime Is—Indirect Reference to Patrol Issue Pleases Concerned Aldermen,” Chicago Sun-Times, May 6, 2003.
46 Skogan et al., CLEAR and I-CLEAR.
47 Megan A. Alderden, Amy Schuck, Cody Stephens, Timothy A. Lavery, Rachel M. Johnston, and Dennis P. Rosenbaum, Gang Hot Spots Policing in Chicago: An Evaluation of the Deployment Operations Center Process (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2012).
48 Alderden et al.
49 CPD, 2006 Annual Report: A Year in Review (Chicago: CPD, 2007).
50 CPD, 2010 Annual Report: A Year in Review.
51 Alderden et al. 2012.
52 Tom Diaz, No Boundaries: Transnational Latino Gangs and American Law Enforcement (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009).
53 CPD, 2006 Annual Report: A Year in Review.
54 George L. Kelling and W. H. Sousa, Do Police Matter? An Analysis of the Impact of New York City’s Police Reforms (New York: Manhattan Institute, 2001). Vincent Henry, The CompStat Paradigm: Management Accountability in Policing, Business and the Public Sector (Flushing, N.Y.: Looseleaf Law Publications, 2003).
55 Neil Smith, “Giuliani Time: The Revanchist 1990s,” Social Text 57 (1998): 1–20.
56 Rudolph Giuliani, “The New Mayor; Transcript of Inaugural Speech: Giuliani Urges Change and Unity,” New York Times, January 3, 1994.
57 Citizen’s Crime Commission, A Report by the Citizens Crime Commission of New York City, Inc. (New York: CCC, 1990); Vitale, “Innovation and Institutionalization.”
58 Rudolph Giuliani and William Bratton, Police Strategy No. 5: Reclaiming the Public Spaces of New York (New York, 1994).
59 Here unchecked physical disorders (graffiti, dilapidated buildings) and social disorders (intoxication, rowdiness) were said to be causally related to criminal activity. George L. Kelling and William Bratton, “Declining Crime Rates: Insiders’ Views of the New York City Story,” The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 88, no. 4 (1998): 1217–32. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, “Defining Deviancy Down,” The American Scholar 62, no. 1 (1993).
60 George L. Kelling and James Q. Wilson, “Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety,” Atlantic, March, 29–38.
61 For a comprehensive argument, see Bernard Harcourt, Illusion of Order: The False Promise of Broken Windows Policing (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005).
62 Brian Jordan Jefferson, “Broken Windows Policing and Constructions of Space and Crime: Flatbush, Brooklyn,” Antipode 48, no. 5 (2016): 1270–91.
63 Silverman, NYPD Battles Crime. Henry, CompStat Paradigm. Kathleen Gilsinan and Adam Stepan, From CompStat to Gov 2.0 Big Data in New York City Management (New York: Columbia University School of Internation and Public Affairs, 2014). Maple and Mitchell, Crime Fighter.
64 Victor Goldsmith, Arthur Langer, and Robert Graff, Innovative Crime Mapping Techniques and Spatial Analysis (1997; repr., Washington, D.C.: Research Foundation of the City University of New York, 2004). John Mollenkopf, Victor Goldsmith, Philip McGuire, and Sara McLafferty, Identification, Development and Implementation of Innovative Crime Mapping Techniques and Spatial Analysis (Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 2000).
65 Alex Hirschfield and Kate Bowers, Mapping and Analysing Crime Data: Lessons from Research and Practice (London: CRC Press, 2001). Mollenkopf et al., Identification, Development and Implementation.
66 Quotation from Thomas J. Lueck, “From Database to Crime Scene: Network Is Potent Police Weapon,” New York Times, June 7, 2007.
67 See Christian Parenti, Lockdown America: Police and Prisons in the Age of Crisis (London: Verso, 2008).
68 See, e.g., the documentary Crime by the Numbers, directed by Don Argott.
69 Bratton, Turnaround.
70 See, e.g., Edwin E. Ghiselli and Jacob P. Siegel, “Leadership and Managerial Success in Tall and Flat Organization Structures,” Personnel Psychology 25, no. 4 (1972): 617–24.
71 Henry, CompStat Paradigm.
72 James J. Willis, Stephen D. Mastrofski, and David Weisburd, CompStat in Practice: An In-Depth Analysis of Three Cities (Washington, D.C.: Police Foundation, 2003).
73 Giuliani and Bratton, Police Strategy No. 5.
74 Larry E. Sullivan and Marie Simonetti Rosen, Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement (London: Sage, 2004).
75 Giuliani and Bratton, Police Strategy No. 5.
76 “Mayor Bloomberg Discusses Crime Reduction Strategies at Citizen’s Crime Commission Breakfast,” press release, 2005.
77 “Archives of Michael R. Bloomberg,” press release, 2002–13.
78 Center for Constitutional Rights, Stop and Frisk: The Human Impact (New York: CCR, 2012).
79 Jefferson, “Broken Windows Policing.”
80 New York Civil Liberties Union, NYPD Quarterly Reports (New York: New York Civil Liberties Union, 2015).
81 “Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg Announces Operation Silent Night,” press release, Mayor’s Office, 2002. “Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg Announces Operation Spotlight,” press release, Mayor’s Office, New York, 2002. “Archives of Michael R. Bloomberg.”
82 “Mayor Bloomberg Discusses Crime Reduction Strategies.”
83 “Mayor Bloomberg Discusses Crime Reduction Strategies.”
84 School Safety Agents, NYPD School Safety Agent Duties and Responsibilities: A Guide for DOE and NYPD Personnel (New York: NYPD, n.d.).
85 Brian Jordan Jefferson, “From Prisons to Hyperpolicing: Neoliberalism, Carcerality, and Regulative Geographies,” in Historical Geographies of Prisons: Unlocking the Usable Carceral Past, ed. Karen Morin and Dominique Moran, 185–204 (London: Routledge, 2015).
86 New York City School–Justice Partnership Task Force, Keeping Kids in School and out of Court: Report and Recommendations (New York: New York City School–Justice Partnership Task Force, 2013).
87 New York Civil Liberties Union, Education Interrupted: The Growing Use of Suspensions in New York City’s Public Schools (New York: New York Civil Liberties Union, 2011).
88 Rocco Parascandola, “NYPD Readies for Scan-and-Frisk,” NY Daily News, January 23, 2013. Rashida Richardson and Jay Stanley, “TSA Tests See-Through Scanners on Public in New York’s Penn Station,” ACLU, 2018.
89 Craig Uchida, A National Discussion on Predictive Policing: Defining Our Terms and Mapping Successful Implementation Strategies (Los Angeles, Calif.: National Institute of Justice, 2009). Ingrid Burrington, “What Amazon Taught the Cops,” Nation, May 27, 2015.
90 Uchida, A National Discussion.
91 John McCarthy et al., “A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, August 31, 1955,” AI Magazine 27, no. 4 (2006).
92 Charlie Beck and Colleen McCue, “Predictive Policing: What Can We Learn from Wal-Mart and Amazon about Fighting Crime in a Recession?,” The Police Chief 76, no. 11 (2009). Kalee Thompson, “The Santa Cruz Experiment,” Popular Science, November 2011.
93 Elizabeth Flock, “Alum Marshals Data to Fight Chicago Crime,” University of Chicago Magazine, June 27, 2011, https://www.uchicago.edu/features/20110627_byte_cop/.
94 See, e.g., Priscillia Hunt, Jessica Saunders, and John S. Hollywood, Evaluation of the Shreveport Predictive Policing Experiment (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2014).
95 D. Kim Rossmo, “Place, Space, and Police Investigations: Hunting Serial Violent Criminals,” in Crime and Place, ed. John Eck and David Weisburd, 217–36 (Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press, 1995).
96 Brian Jordan Jefferson, “Predictable Policing: Predictive Crime Mapping and Geographies of Policing and Race,” Annals of Association of American Geographers 108, no. 1 (2018): 1–16.
97 Manning, The Technology of Policing. Luis Garicano and Paul Heaton, “Information Technology, Organization, and Productivity in the Public Sector: Evidence from Police Departments,” Journal of Labor Economics 28, no. 1 (2010): 167–201. Jessica Saunders, Priscillia Hunt, and John S. Hollywood, “Predictions Put into Practice: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Chicago’s Predictive Policing Pilot,” Journal of Experimental Criminology 12 (2016): 347–71.
98 Whether measured through dissimilarity, isolation, or interaction indexes, urbanized racial segregation is generally most intense in the very cities that employ predictive law enforcement. John Iceland, Daniel H. Weinberg, and Erika Steinmetz, Racial and Ethnic Residential Segregation in the United States: 1980–2000 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, 2002). Milwaukee, Baltimore, and St. Louis have the widest spatial distributions of majoritized and minoritized populations; Baltimore, Chicago, and Milwaukee have the least degree of potential contact between the populations; and in Baltimore, Chicago, and Milwaukee, minorities have the least exposure to majorities.
99 Jerry Ratcliffe and George F. Rentgert, “Near Repeat Patterns in Philadelphia Shootings,” Security Journal 21 (2008).
100 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Local Area Unemployment Statistics 2007–2016,” in Databases, Tables, and Calculators by Subject (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2016).
101 U.S. Department of Labor, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 2008 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010). U.S. Department of Labor, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 2009 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “BLS Spotlight on Statistics: The Recession of 2007–2009,” in Unemployment Demographics (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012).
102 Kevin Hoffman, “Level of Long-Term Unemployment in Illinois among Highest in Us,” Reboot Illinois, August 5, 2015.
103 U.S. Census, “Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months,” in American Community Survey (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, 2012).
104 Teresa L. Córdova, Matthew D. Wilson, and Jackson C. Morsey, Lost: The Crisis of Jobless and Out of School Teens and Young Adults in Chicago, Illinois and the U.S. (Chicago: Great Cities Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2014).
105 John Byrne, “Rahm Emanuel Pivots from Disadvantaged Youth to Tech Talk,” Chicago Tribune, May 19, 2015.
106 Flock, “Alum Marshals Data to Fight Chicago Crime.”
107 Bernard Harcourt, Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006).
108 Jefferson, “Predictable Policing.”
109 By the end of 2012, the rate of long-term (at least twenty-four months) residential housing vacancies per residential address was exponentially higher in Black Belt neighborhoods when compared to the rest of Chicago. West Englewood’s rate was 155 percent higher than the city average (2.86 percent), Woodlawn’s rate was 180 percent higher, Washington Park’s was 246 percent higher, Englewood’s was 256 percent higher, and Riverdale’s was a perplexing 711 percent higher than the city average. To compound matters, community areas with exorbitant residential vacancies were targeted for disinvestments in an array of public services, including garbage disposal and road repair. The physical disorder stemming from abandonment and disinvestment is particularly acute across South Side neighborhoods, where more than 50 percent of residents reported graffiti and trash as a problem in 2010 (compared to city averages of 21 percent and 27 percent, respectively). See Caterina G. Roman and Carly Knight, Physical Environment of Public Housing Residents in Two Chicago Developments in Transition (Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute 2010).
110 U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Arrest Data Analysis Tool: Offense by Age and Race 1990 to 1999 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2016).
111 CPD, “2009 Annual Report: A Year in Review.”
112 Elizabeth E. Joh, “The New Surveillance Discretion: Automated Suspicion, Big Data, and Policing,” Harvard Law and Policy Review 10 (2016).
113 Saunders et al., “Predictions Put into Practice.”
114 David Robinson, “Chicago Police Have Tripled Their Use of a Secret, Computerized ‘Heat List,’” Equal Future, May 26, 2016.
115 Matt Stroud, “The Minority Report: Chicago’s New Police Computer Predicts Crimes, but Is It Racist?,” The Verge, February 19, 2014.
116 Dick briefly suggests in the story that the mutants were in fact hydrocephalics.
117 Philip K. Dick, The Minority Report (New York: Citadel Press Books, 1987), 73.
118 Specifically, the scandal in “The Minority Report” is used by Dick to interrogate the “absolute metaphysics” of precrime methodology from the perspective of individual autonomy. The story points out that the commissioner’s access to precrime information provided an opportunity for him to choose an alternative course of action. Making precrime information public, it is suggested, will enable would-be criminals to use their autonomy not to commit crimes.
4. Punishment in the Network Form
1 Peter M. Brien, Improving Access to and Integrity of Criminal History Records (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2005). Sarah Esther Lageson, “Digital Punishment’s Tangled Web,” Contexts 15, no. 1 (2016): 22–27.
2 Kevin Kelly, Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, and the Economic World (New York: Basic Books, 1994). Galloway and Thacker, The Exploit.
3 Castells, Rise of Network Society.
4 “National Crime Information Center Celebrates 40th Birthday,” Government Technology, January 22, 2007.
6 “National Crime Information Center.”
7 Gottschalk shows how this populism eventually helped pave the way for the reinstitution of the death penalty in 1976. Marie Gottschalk, The Prison and the Gallows: The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
8 Quotation in Office of Technology Assessment, An Assessment of Alternatives for a National Computerized Criminal History System (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982).
9 Office of Technology Assessment.
10 NLETS Inc., Final Report for National Law Enforcement Telecommunications Systems Upgrade Project (Phoenix, Ariz.: Office of Justice Programs, 1977).
11 Sal Perri, “Law Enforcement and the Information Highway,” Compiler 15, no. 1 (1995/1996): 9.
12 U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Criminal History Improvement Program: Fiscal Year 1997 Program Announcement (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1997).
13 Brien, Improving Access.
15 “National Crime Information Center Celebrates 40th Birthday.”
16 This aspect of the program to make all criminal justice databases interoperable was spearheaded by the Office of Justice Programs and Georgia Technical Research Institute.
17 Edmund F. McGarrell, Joshua D. Freilich, and Steven Chermak, “Intelligence-Led Policing as a Framework for Responding to Terrorism,” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 23, no. 2 (2007): 142–58. Jerry Ratcliffe, Intelligence-Led Policing (New York: Willan, 2008). “Intelligence-Led Policing and the Problems of Turning Rhetoric into Practice,” Policing and Society 12 (2002): 53–66.
18 See, e.g., Geoffrey Alan Boyce, “The Rugged Border: Surveillance, Policing and the Dynamic Materiality of the US/Mexico Frontier,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 34, no. 2 (2016): 245–62.
19 Joel A. Tarr, Thomas Finholt, and David Goodman, “The City and the Telegraph: Urban Telecommunications in the Pre-Telephone Era,” Urban History 14, no. 1 (1987): 38–80.
20 James C. McKinley Jr., “Anti-Crime Plan Will Curb Violence, Commissioner Says,” New York Times, February 9, 1991.
21 Lee Brown, Policing New York City in the 1990s: The Strategy for Community Policing (New York: New York Police Department, 1991).
22 Jerome A. Needle and Renée M. Cobb, Improving Transit Security (Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 1997).
23 New York Police Department, Developing the NYPD’s Information Technology (New York: New York Police Department, 2015).
24 Criminal Justice Authority, Annual Report 2014 (New York: Criminal Justice Authority, 2016).
25 New York Police Department, Developing the NYPD’s Information Technology.
26 “NYPD Technology: Helping the Finest Keep NYC Safe,” NYPD News, February 20, 2017.
27 Meredith Patten, Erica Bond, Cecilia Low-Weiner, Quinn O. Hood, Olive Lu, Shannon Tomascak, Darren Agboh, and Preeti Chauhan, Trends in Marijuana Enforcement in New York State, 1990 to 2017 (New York: John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Data Collaborative for Justice, 2019).
28 Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, “Illinois Ranks Fourth in Jail Suicides,” Compiler 9, no. 2 (1988): 3.
29 “Many ‘Rap Sheets’ Not Automated, Audit Finds,” Compiler 6, no. 2 (1985): 3, 8.
30 Kevin Morison, “Technology Wave Breaking over Criminal Justice,” Compiler 7, no. 3 (1986): 1, 13.
31 Paul Fields, “Illinois House Unanimously Approves Authority’s Uniform Disposition Reporting Bill,” Compiler 4, no. 2 (1983): 3.
32 Ben Zajac, “Buffalo Grove Joins PIMS,” Compiler 4, no. 2 (1983): 1, 6. Kevin Morison, “Using PIMS in Police Management,” Compiler 8, no. 4 (1988): 11–13.
33 Maureen Hickey and Ed Kennedy, “Mixed News on Backlogs,” Compiler 11, no. 2 (1991): 5–6.
34 Ed Kennedy and Maureen Hickey, “Computers for Rural Courts,” Compiler 11, no. 2 (1991): 11–12. Other technological fixes included computer programs that helped police, prosecutors, and victim advocates determine charges and sentences; closed circuit video feeds from jails were also used so inmates could make court appearances without leaving detention, and crime laboratories to hasten criminal processing.
35 Steve Polilli, “The High-Tech Court of the Future,” Compiler 13, no. 1 (1993): 12–13.
36 Madeleine Hamlin, “In Chicago, Another Public Housing Experiment: Prisoner Reentry,” CITYLAB, August 10, 2017, https://www.citylab.com/equity/2017/08/in-chicago-another-public-housing-experiement-prisoner-reentry/535947/.
37 Lynne Mock, “The Impact of Employment Restriction Laws on Illinois’ Convicted Felons,” Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, http://www.icjia.state.il.us/articles/the-impact-of-employment-restriction-laws-on-illinois-convicted-felons.
38 Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, The 1996 Criminal History Records Audit (Chicago: State of Illinois, 1997).
39 Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, A Comprehensive Examination of the Illinois Criminal History Records Information (CHRI) System (Chicago: State of Illinois, 1995).
40 Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
41 “Authority’s Computer System Helps Counties Manage Jail Populations,” Compiler 9, no. 4 (1989): 5. To be specific, it processed arrests that involved class B and higher offenses.
42 “New Fingerprint Detection Techniques Boost Police Effectiveness, Says BJS,” Compiler 8, no. 2 (1987): 2, 14.
43 “Live-Scan: Fingerprints Go Digital,” Compiler 13, no. 1 (1993): 4–5.
44 Chris Humble, “Advances in Technology Help Boost the Quality of Electronic Criminal History Reporting,” Trends and Issues 4, no. 1 (2002): 1–4.
45 Castells, Rise of Network Society.
46 Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, “Authority Endorses Proposed Chri Act,” Compiler 4, no. 4 (1984): 1, 6.
47 Jamilah Owens, “Law Allows Public to Obtain Records,” Compiler 14, no. 1 (1994): 15–16.
48 Matt L. Rodriguez, Together We Can (Chicago: City of Chicago, 1993).
49 Skogan et al., Policing Smarter through It.
50 Amy Schuck and Dennis P. Rosenbaum, Building Trust and a Police-Community Website: An Assessment of the CLEARpath Planning ANF Community Engagement Process (Chicago: University of Illinois, 2008).
51 Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage Books, 1977), 214.
52 Sarah Gonzalez, “The Trouble with NYPD’s Crime Dots,” WNYC News, March 8, 2016.
53 Samuel Lieberman, “Trying Out CompStat 2.0, the NYPD’s Yelp for Crime,” New York Magazine, February 23, 2016.
54 Matthew Fuller, Behind the Blip (New York: Autonomedia, 2003).
55 Chandan Reddy, Freedom with Violence: Race, Sexuality, and the US State (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2011).
56 Ed Mullins, Peek-a-Boo, We See You Too (New York: Sergeants Benevolent Association, 2015).
57 Neal Stephenson, The Diamond Age; or, A Young Lady’s Illustrated Primer (New York: Bantam Books, 1995).
58 Stephenson, 56.
59 Paul Wormeli, Mitigating Risks in the Application of Cloud Computing in Law Enforcement (Washington, D.C.: IBM Center for the Business of Government, 2012).
60 Reuben Jonathan Miller and Amanda Alexander, “The Price of Carceral Citizenship: Punishment, Surveillance, and Social Welfare Policy in an Age of Carceral Expansion,” Michigan Journal of Law and Race 21, no. 291 (2016): 291–314.
61 Alexander Galloway and Eugene Thacker, The Exploit: A Theory of Networks (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007).
5. How to Program a Carceral City
1 Nigel Thrift, “The Promise of Urban Informatics: Some Speculations,” Environment and Planning A 46 (2014): 1263–66.
2 Quotation from Katherine McKittrick, “Plantation Futures,” Small Axe: A Caribbean Journal of Criticism 17, no. 3 (2013): 1–15. See also Katherine McKittrick and Clyde Woods, eds., Black Geographies and the Politics of Place (Cambridge, Mass.: South End Press, 2007).
3 Transportation infrastructure, including airports, mass transit turnstiles, parking garages, parking meters, skyways, and toll roads, notably came under private-sector stewardship. See Philip Ashton, Marc Doussard, and Rachel Weber, “The Financial Engineering of Infrastructure Privatization,” Journal of the American Planning Association 78, no. 3 (2012): 300–312.
4 Gilmore, Golden Gulag.
5 For instance, Siemens targets $8.5 billion in annual revenue from its smart grid of energy, high-voltage transmission cables, turbines, and sensors. See Philip Carter, Bill Rojas, and Mayur Sahni, Delivering Next-Generation Citizen Services: Assessing the Environmental, Social and Economic Impact of Intelligent X on Future Cities and Communities (Singapore: IDC, 2011). Anthony Townsend, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia (New York: W. W. Norton, 2014).
6 Architectural theorist Keller Easterling describes these projects as aspirations to embed infrastructural operating systems into urban space. Easterling, Extrastatecraft: The Power of Infrastructure Space (New York: Verso, 2014).
7 Blake Harris, “Chicago Fusion Center Gives Police New Criminal Investigation Tools,” Government Technology, 2008, https://www.govtech.com/dc/articles/Chicago-Fusion-Center-Gives-Police-New.html.
8 Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Vision 2020: America’s Military—Preparing for Tomorrow (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000).
9 Government Accountability Office, Secure Border Initiative: Technology Delays Persist and the Impact of Border Fencing Has Not Been Assessed (Washington, D.C.: Government Accountability Office, 2009).
10 The project included an infrastructure of aerial surveillance, border patrol, CCTV cameras, ground sensors, municipal police, and radar towers. The original ambitions of the $3.7 billion initiative were to establish a megastructure consisting of eighteen hundred towers and spanning six thousand miles of the border zones, which relayed data streams to a central control room in the nation’s capital.
11 Esri, GIS for Real-Time Crime Centers (Redlands, Calif.: Esri, 2013).
12 Motorola Solutions, Communication Systems Stop Crime in Its Tracks: Real Time Intelligence Takes Police Beyond Responding, to Prediction and Prevention (Schaumburg, Ill.: Motorola Solutions Inc., 2015).
13 Walter L. Perry, Brian McInnis, Carter C. Price, Susan C. Smith, and John S. Hollywood, Predictive Policing: The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2013).
15 Maria Cramer, “Watching from a Distance Police Cameras Form a Wide Net over Boston Area,” http://archive.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2010/05/03/net_of_surveillance_cameras_expands_over_boston_and_surrounding_communities/.
16 Juliana Reyes, “Real Time Crime Center: 1 Year after Launch, 24-Hour Support Center Will Move to Delaware Valley Intelligence Center This Spring,” Philly, February 20, 2013.
17 Information Builders, Houston Police Department Creates Real-Time Crime Center (New York: Information Builders, 2012).
18 Laurie Johnson, “HPD Tracks Crime in Real Time,” Houston Public Media, 2008.
19 GVR, “IoT Security Market Size Worth $9.88 Billion by 2025 | Cagr: 29.7%,” Grand View Research, 2018.
20 Rory Appleton, “Fresno Police Unveil State-of-the-Art Crime Tracking System,” Fresno Bee, July 7, 2015.
21 David Murphy, “Fighting Crime in Real Time,” PC Magazine, September 28, 2005.
22 New York Police Department (NYPD), “New York City Police Department Releases Draft of the Public Security Privacy Guidelines for Public Comment,” press release, February 25, 2009, http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/html/pr/pr_2009_005.shtml.
23 New York Police Department, Best Practice: Real Time Crime Center: Centralized Crime Data System (New York: NYPD, 2010).
24 IBM, IBM Crime Information Warehouse: Unlocking Data to Fight Crime (Somers, N.Y.: IBM Corporation, 2005).
25 George Joseph and Kenneth Lipp, “IBM NYPD Surveillance Footage to Develop Technology That Lets Police Search by Skin Color,” Intercept, Sepember 6, 2018.
26 NYPD, “Mayor Bloomberg, Police Commisioner Kelly and MTA Chairman Walder Activate Security Cameras inside Times Square, Penn Station and Grand Central Subway Stations as Part of NYPD’s Midtown Manhattan Security Initiative,” NYC, September 20, 2010, https://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/399-10/mayor-bloomberg-police-commissioner-kelly-mta-chairman-walder-activate-security-cameras-inside#/3.
27 New York State Department of Labor, Employment in New York State (Albany: New York State Department of Labor, 2010).
28 Michael Hout and Erin Cumberworth, The Labor Force and the Great Recession (Stanford, Calif.: Russell Sage Foundation/Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, 2012).
29 Hout and Cumberworth.
30 NYPD, Developing the NYPD’s Information Technology (New York: City of New York, 2015).
31 Dan Verton, “Cybersecurity: NYPD, Microsoft Launch Domain Awareness System,” Homeland Security Today, August 13, 2012.
32 NYCHA, “New CCTV Cameras Installed at 31 Developments,” NYCHA Journal 46, no. 2 (2016).
33 Gary Mason, “NYPD Set to Completely Overhaul Its Data Systems,” Police Product Insight, February/March 2016.
34 Kevin D. Haggerty and Richard V. Ericson, eds., The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007). David Lyon, The Electronic Eye: The Rise of Surveillance Society (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994).
35 Haggerty and Ericson, New Politics.
36 Simone Browne, Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2015).
37 E. S. Levine et al., “The New York City Police Department’s Domain Awareness System,” Interfaces 47, no. 1 (2017): 1–109.
38 NYPD, “Developing the NYPD’s Information Technology.”
40 This data mining ethos extended to social media surveillance, as DAS monitored the social media pages of hundreds of youths it designated as belonging to “proto-gangs.” See NYPD.
41 Joseph Goldstein, “Weekly Police Briefing Offers Snapshot of Department and Its Leader,” New York Times, February 10, 2013.
42 City Council Public Safety Committee, Marijuana Possession Arrest, Illegal Searches, and the Summons Court System (New York: City Council Public Safety Committee, 2012). Levine et al., “New York City Police Department’s Domain Awareness System.”
43 Don Babwin, “Cameras Make Chicago Most Closely Watched U.S. City,” Associated Press, April 6, 2010.
44 ACLU, “Fusion Centers in Illinois,” September 2012, https://www.aclu-il.org/en/publications/fusion-centers-illinois.
45 Anne Chen, “GIS Fights Crime in Chicago,” EWeek, May 31, 2004.
46 Harris, “Chicago Fusion Center.”
47 ACLU, Chicago’s Video Surveillance Cameras: A Pervasive and Unregulated Threat to Our Privacy (Chicago: ACLU of Illinois, 2011).
49 Matt Stroud, “Did Chicago’s Facial Recognition System Catch Its First Crook?,” Verge, August 8, 2014.
50 Daniel Schorn, “We’re Watching,” CBS, September 5, 2006.
52 U.S. Department of Labor, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 2008 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Local Area Unemployment Statistics 2007–2016,” in Databases, Tables and Calculators by Subject (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2016).
53 Kevin Hoffman, “Level of Long-Term Unemployment in Illinois among Highest in US,” Reboot Illinois, August 5, 2015.
54 U.S. Census, “Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months,” in American Community Survey (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, 2012).
55 Neeta Fogg, Paul Harrington, and Ishwar Khatiwada, A Frayed Connection: Joblessness among Teens in Chicago (Philadelphia: Drexel University Center for Labor Markets and Policy, 2015). Teresa L. Córdova, Matthew D. Wilson, and Jackson C. Morsey, Lost: The Crisis of Jobless and Out of School Teens and Young Adults in Chicago, Illinois and the U.S. (Chicago: Great Cities Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2014).
56 Police Accountability Task Force (PATF), Recommendations for Reform: Restoring Trust between the Chicago Police and the Communities They Serve (Chicago: PATF, April 2016), https://chicagopatf.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/PATF_Final_Report_4_13_16-1.pdf.
58 Mayor’s Press Office, “Police Department Announces Expansion of Predictive Technology in Chatham and Auburn Gresham,” press release, July 25, 2017, https://www.chicago.gov/city/en/depts/mayor/press_room/press_releases/2017/july/PolicePredictiveTech.html.
59 Lucius Couloute and Daniel Kopf, Out of Prison and Out of Work: Unemployment among Formerly Incarcerated People (Washington, D.C.: Prison Policy Initiative, 2018).
1 Huey P. Newton, “Prison, Where Is Thy Victory?,” in The Huey P. Newton Reader, ed. David Hilliard and Donald Weise (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2002), 154.
2 President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing (Washington, D.C.: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2015).
3 Jean Baudrillard, The Spirit of Terrorism (London: Verso, 2003).
4 Ian Ayres and Jonathan Borowsky, A Study of Racially Disparate Outcomes in the Los Angeles Police Department (Los Angeles, Calif.: ACLU, 2008).
5 Amsterdam News, September 28, 2012.
6 New York Times, June 17, 2012.
7 Chris Bilal, Huffington Post, June 18, 2012.
8 Djibril Toure, CPR spokesperson.
9 Alison Flowers, Anna Boisseau, Kari Lydersen, Madison Hopkins, and Rajiv Sinclair, “Chicago’s ‘Skullcap Crew’: Band of Police Accused of Brutality Evade Discipline,” Guardian, August 3, 2016.
10 PCRG, Regional Gang Intelligence Database, ed. Policing in Chicago Research Group (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2019).