Achenbach, J., and D. Keating. 2017. “New Research Identifies a ‘Sea of Despair’ among White, Working-class Americans.” The Washington Post, March 23. washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/new-research-identifies-a-sea-of-despair-among-white-working-class-americans/2017/03/22/c777ab6e-0da6-11e7-9b0d-d27c98455440_story.html?utm_term=.79367a960a9f.
Akers, J. 2013. “Decline Industry: The Market Production of Detroit.” PhD diss., University of Toronto.
Akers, J. 2017. “The Actually Existing Markets of Shrinking Cities.” Metropolitics.eu, April 18. metropolitiques.eu/The-Actually-Existing-Markets-of.html.
Alarcón, D. 2015. “How Do You Define a Gang Member?” The New York Times, May 27. nytimes.com/2015/05/31/magazine/how-do-you-define-a-gang-member.html.
Alexander, M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press.
Allegretti, M. 2013. “Addressing Detroit’s Crime Problem.” Real Clear Policy, September 3. realclearpolicy.com/articles/2013/09/03/addressing_detroits_crime_problem_635.html.
Alonso, A. A. 1999. “Territoriality among African-American Street Gangs in Los Angeles.” Master’s thesis, University of Southern California.
American Civil Liberties Union. 2013. “ACLU Urges Detroit to End Illegal Practice of ‘Dumping’ Homeless People outside City Limits, files DOJ Complaint.” ACLU, April 18. aclu.org/news/aclu-urges-detroit-end-illegal-practice-dumping-homeless-people-outside-city-limits-files-doj.
Appalachian Land Ownership Task Force. 1982. Who Owns Appalachia? Land Ownership and Its Impact. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.
Austin, J., E. Cadora, et al. 2013. Ending Mass Incarceration: Charting a New Justice Reinvestment. The Sentencing Project. sentencingproject.org/doc/Charting%20a%20New%20Justice%20Reinvestment%20FINAL.pdf.
Avila, E. 2014. The Folklore of the Freeway: Race and Revolt in the Modernist City. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Bain, J., and M. Gartland. 2013. “Postal Workers Too Scared to Deliver Mail in Crime-ridden Brownsville, Brooklyn.” New York Post, May 5. amren.com/news/2013/05/postal-workers-too-scared-to-deliver-mail-in-crime-ridden-brownsville-brooklyn/.
Bales, W., et al. 2010. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Electronic Monitoring: Report Submitted to the Office of Justice Program National Institute of Justice U.S. Department of Justice. ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/230530.pdf.
Balko, R. 2014a. “How Municipalities in St. Louis County Profit from Poverty.” The Washington Post, September 3. washingtonpost.com/news/the-watch/wp/2014/09/03/how-st-louis-county-missouri-profits-from-poverty/.
Balko, R. 2014b. “Why We Need to Fix St. Louis County.” The Washington Post, October 16. washingtonpost.com/news/the-watch/wp/2014/10/16/why-we-need-to-fix-st-louis/.
Bannerji, H. 1995. Thinking Through: Essays on Feminism, Marxism, and Anti-racism. Toronto: Women’s Press.
Barajas, F. P. 2007. “An Invading Army: A Civil Gang Injunction in a Southern California Chicana/o Community.” Latino Studies 5, no. 4: 393–417.
Bauer, S. 2014. “How Conservatives Learned to Love Prison Reform.” Mother Jones, March/April. motherjones.com/politics/2014/02/conservatives-prison-reform-right-on-crime.
Becker, B. 2016. “The Prison Builder’s Dilemma: Economics and Ethics Clash in Eastern Kentucky.” Ohio Valley Resource, July 29. ohiovalleyresource.org/2016/07/29/the-prison-builders-dilemma-economics-and-ethics-clash-in-eastern-kentucky/.
Beckett, K., and B. Western. 2001. “Governing through Social Marginality: Welfare, Incarceration, and the Transformation of State Policy.” Punishment and Society 3, no. 1: 43–59.
Beckett, K., and S. Herbert. 2008. “Dealing with Disorder: Social Control in the Post-industrial City.” Theoretical Criminology 12, no. 1: 5–30.
Beckett, K., and S. Herbert. 2010. Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beckett, K., and N. Murakawa. 2012. “Mapping the Shadow Carceral State: Toward an Institutionally Capacious Approach to Punishment.” Theoretical Criminology 16, no. 2: 221–44.
Beckett, K., et al. 2014. “The End of an Era? The Contradictions of Criminal Justice Reform.” Unpublished paper delivered at the Realigning Corrections workshop, University of California, Irvine, October 16–18.
Bellafante, G. 2013. “Resurrecting Brownsville.” The Nation, May 6. thenation.com/article/173886/resurrecting-brownsville#.
Bello, G. 2016. “Abolishing Private Prisons Is the Biggest Lie since Economic Recovery.” The Mockingbird. mockingbirdpaper.com/content/abolishing-private-prisons-biggest-lie-economic-recovery.
Berger, D. 2010. “We Are the Revolutionaries: Visibility, Protest, and Racial Formation in 1970s Prison Radicalism.” PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania.
Berger, D. 2014, Captive Nation: Black Prison Organizing in the Civil Rights Era (Justice, Power, and Politics). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Berger, J. 2012. “As Brooklyn Gentrifies, Some Neighborhoods Are Being Left Behind.” The New York Times, July 8. nytimes.com/2012/07/09/nyregion/as-brooklyn-gentrifies-some-neighborhoods-are-being-left-behind.html.
Berlant, L. 2000. “The Subject of True Feeling: Pain, Privacy, and Politics.” In Feminist Consequences: Theory for the New Century, edited by E. Bronfen and M. Kavka, 126–60. New York: Columbia University Press.
Berlant, L. 2007. “Nearly Utopian, Nearly Normal: Post-Fordist Affect in La Promesse and Rosetta.” Public Culture 19, no. 2: 273–301.
Berlant, L. 2011. Cruel Optimism. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Billings, D., and K. M. Blee. 2000. The Road to Poverty: The Making of Wealth and Hardship in Appalachia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Blakinger, K. 2015. “Rand Paul Is Playing with Fire: The Shockingly Reasonable Ideas That Could Doom Him with Republicans.” Salon, April 20. salon.com/2015/04/20/rand_paul_returns_to_the_scene_of_the_crime_drug_war_crusade_takes_him_back_to_howard_university/.
Blomley, N. 2004. Unsettling the City: Urban Land and the Politics of Property. New York: Routledge.
Blue, L. 2012. “It’s Called the Graveyard Shift for a Reason.” Time Magazine, July 27. healthland.time.com/2012/07/27/its-called-the-graveyard-shift-for-a-reason/.
Bonds, A. 2009. “Discipline and Devolution: Constructions of Poverty, Race, and Criminality in the Politics of Rural Prison Development.” Antipode 39: 416–38.
Bonds, A. 2012. “Building Prisons, Building Poverty: Prison Sitings, Dispossession, and Mass Incarceration.” In Beyond Walls and Cages: Prisons, Borders, and Global Crisis, edited by J. M. Loyd, M. Mitchelson, and A. Burridge, 129–42. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Bonds, A. 2013. “Economic Development, Racialization, and Privilege: ‘Yes in My Backyard’ Prison Politics and the Reinvention of Madras, Oregon.” Annals of the Association of American Geographer 103, no. 6: 1389–1405.
Bonds, A. 2018. “Race and Ethnicity I: Property, Race, and the Carceral State.” Progress in Human Geography, January, 1–10.
Braz, R. 2006. “Kinder, Gentler, Gender Responsive Cages: Prison Expansion Is Not Prison Reform.” Women, Girls & Criminal Justice, October–November, 87–91.
Brice, M. 2014. “Brownsville: What Will NYPD ‘Impact’ Changes Mean?” City Limits, March 27. citylimits.org/2014/03/27/brownsville-what-will-nypd-impact-changes-mean/.
Brown, W. 2005. Edgework: Critical Essays on Knowledge and Politics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Brown, W. 2006. “American Nightmare: Neoliberalism, Neoconservatism, and De-democratization.” Political Theory 34, no. 6: 690–714.
Brownsville Community Justice Center. n.d. “Brownsville Anti-Violence Project.” Brownsville Community Justice Center (blog). brownsvillejusticecenter.blogspot.mx/p/brownsville-anti-violence-project.html.
Bryan, B. 2000. “Property as Ontology: On Aboriginal and English Understandings of Ownership.” Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 13, no. 1: 3–32.
Bureau of Justice Statistics / U.S. Department of Justice. 2000. Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics in 2000. bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/saycrle.pdf.
Burnham, L. 2001. “Welfare Reform, Family Hardship, and Women of Color.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 577 (September): 38–48.
Butler, J. 2004. Precarious Life. New York: Verso.
Butler, J. 2009. Frames of War: When Is Life Grievable? London: Verso.
Byrd, R. 2013. “‘Punishment’s Twin’: Theorizing Prisoner Reentry for a Politics of Abolition.” PhD diss., University of Washington.
Cadora, E. 2014. “Civics Lessons: How Certain Schemes to End Mass Incarceration Can Fail.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 651 (January): 277–85.
Cadora, E., L. Kurgan, and Spatial Information Design Lab / Columbia University Center for Spatial Research. 2006. Architecture and Justice. spatialinformationdesignlab.org/sites/default/files/publication_pdfs/PDF_04.pdf.
Caldwell, B. 2010. “Criminalizing Day-to-Day Life: A Socio-legal Critique of Gang Injunctions.” American Journal of Criminal Law 37, no. 3: 241–90.
California Penal Code. 2010. Article 2: “Electronic Monitoring” (section 3010-2010.9). law.justia.com/codes/california/2010/pen/3010-3010.9.html.
Camp, J. T. 2016. Incarcerating the Crisis: Freedom Struggles and the Rise of the Neoliberal State. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Camp, J. T., and C. Heatherton. 2016. Policing the Planet: Why the Policing Crisis Led to Black Lives Matter. New York: Verso.
Campbell, C. 2015. “How Republican Presidential Candidates Want to Reform the Criminal Justice System.” Business Insider. businessinsider.com/how-2016-candidates-want-to-reform-criminal-justice-2015-4.
Center for Court Innovation. 2012. “Officials Announce Funding for the Brownsville Anti-violence Project.” September. courtinnovation.org/research/officials-announce-funding-brownsville-anti-violence-project.
Center for Court Innovation and New York State Senate. 2012. “Brownsville Community Justice Center Seeking Program Coordinator.” The New York State Senate. October 9. nysenate.gov/newsroom/articles/martin-malav%C3%A9-dilan/brownsville-community-justice-center-seeking-program.
Catte, E. 2018. What You Are Getting Wrong about Appalachia. Cleveland, Ohio: Belt.
Cheves, J. 2014. “House Adds Nursing Home for Felons to Kentucky Budget; Likely Location Is in Stumbo’s District.” Lexington Herald Leader, March 12. kentucky.com/news/politics-government/article44476179.html.
Christian, J. 2005. “Riding the Bus: Barriers to Prison Visitation and Family Management Strategies.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 21, no. 1: 31–48.
Clear, T. 2007. Imprisoning Communities: How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clear, T., and N. A. Frost. 2013. The Punishment Imperative. New York: New York University Press.
Cohen, S. 1979. “The Punitive City: Notes on the Dispersal of Social Control.” Contemporary Crises 3, no. 4: 339–363.
Comfort, M. 2008. Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Corrigan, R. 2006. “Making Meaning of Megan’s Law.” Law & Social Inquiry 31, no. 2: 267–312.
Coulthard, G. 2014. Red Skin, White Masks: Rejecting the Colonial Politics of Recognition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Cowen, D., and A. Siciliano. 2011. “Surplus Masculinities and Security.” Antipode 43, no. 5: 1516–41.
Critical Resistance Oakland. 2011. “Betraying the Model City: How Gang Injunctions Fail Oakland.” stoptheinjunction.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/cr_ganginjunctionsreport-1.pdf.
Cullors-Brignac, P., and D. Zuniga. 2014. “A Mental Health Jail is an Oxymoron; Diversion Is What’s Needed: Guest Commentary.” Opinion, Los Angeles Daily News, June 24. dailynews.com/opinion/20140624/a-mental-health-jail-is-an-oxymoron-diversion-is-whats-needed-guest-commentary.
Dalla Costa, M., and S. James. 1973. The Power of Women and the Subversion of the Community. 2nd ed. Bristol, UK: Walling Wall.
Davies, L. A. 2013. “A First Look inside Dan Gilbert’s Multimillion-dollar Security Hub.” Deadline Detroit, October 11. deadlinedetroit.com/articles/6760/a_first_look_inside_gilbert_s_downtown_multi-million_dollar_security_hub#.VCQwqyiY3bz.
Davis, A. 2003. Are Prisons Obsolete? New York: Seven Stories.
Davis, M. 1990. City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. London: Verso.
De Lissovoy, N. 2012. “Conceptualizing the Carceral Turn: Neoliberalism, Racism, and Violation.” Critical Sociology 39, no. 5: 739–55.
Defilippis, J., and S. Saegert. 2012. The Community Development Reader. New York: Routledge.
Detroit People’s Water Board, Blue Planet Project, Food & Water Watch, and Michigan Welfare Rights Organization. 2014. Submission to the Special Rapporteur on the Human Right to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation Regarding Water Cut-offs in the City of Detroit, Michigan. June 18. blueplanetproject.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/Detroit-HRTW-submission-June-18-2014.pdf.
Drum, K. 2014. “In Ferguson, Cops Hand Out 3 Warrants Per Household Every Year.” Mother Jones, August 21. motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2014/08/ferguson-cops-hand-out-three-warrants-household-every-year.
Dunaway, W. A. 1995. “Speculators and Settler Capitalists: Unthinking the Mythology about Appalachian Landholding, 1790–1860.” In Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century, edited by Mary Beth Pudup, Dwight B. Billings, and Altina Waller, 50–75. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Dunbar-Ortiz, R. 2014. An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States. New York: Beacon.
Eason, J. 2016. Big House on the Prairie: Rise of the Rural Ghetto and Prison Proliferation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ellen, I. G., and M. A. Turner. 1997. “Does Neighborhood Matter? Assessing Recent Evidence.” Housing Policy Debate 8, no. 4: 33–66.
Eller, R. D. 2008. Uneven Ground: Appalachia since 1945. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Estep, B. 2013. “Steve Beshear and Hal Rogers Propose Summit to Revive Eastern Kentucky’s Economy.” Lexington Herald-Leader, October 28. kentucky.com/news/politics-government/article44451084.html.
Estep, B. 2014. “Eastern Kentucky Ranks Last in National Survey of Well-being.” Lexington Herald-Leader, April 5. kentucky.com/news/politics-government/article44481810.html.
Farrell, P. A. 2017. “Oak Park Police Department Gets Its Own Ice Cream Truck.” Detroit Free Press, May 2. freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/oakland/2017/05/02/oak-park-police-ice-cream-truck/101195192/.
Federal Reserve. 2014. “Annual Report, 2014.” Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. federalreserve.gov/publications/annual-report/2014-federal-reserve-banks.htm.
Feldman, A. 1991. Formations of Violence: The Narrative of the Body and Political Terror in Northern Ireland. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ferguson Action. 2014. “Demands.” Ferguson Action. fergusonaction.com/demands/.
Fields, B. 1990. “Slavery, Race and Ideology in the United States of America.” New Left Review 181, no. 1 (May–June): 95–118.
Flores, A. 2017. “A Court Made It Illegal for This Guy to Be Seen with His Dad in Public and Now He’s Fighting Back.” Buzzfeed News, March 14. buzzfeed.com/adolfoflores/life-under-a-gang-injunction?utm_term=.vcwMwYLqR#.fbDeLg0nq.
Foucault, M. 1977. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by A. Sheridan. New York: Vintage Books.
Garland, D. 2001. Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
George, J. 2017. “Can This Marriage Be Saved?” The Marshall Project, June 6. themarshallproject.org/2017/06/06/can-this-marriage-be-saved#.4HDUsqzaP.
Gilmore, R. W. 1994. “Capital, State and the Spatial Fix: Imprisoning the Crisis at Pelican Bay.” Unpublished paper, Rutgers University.
Gilmore, R. W. 2007. Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gilmore, R. W. 2009. “Race, Prisons, and War: Scenes from the History of U.S. Violence.” Socialist Register 45: 73–87.
Gilmore, R. W. 2014. “Mass Incarceration, Deportation, Stop and Frisk: The Urban Ecology of the Prison-Industrial Complex.” Third Annual Robert Fitch Memorial Lecture, City University of New York, May 6. vimeo.com/98395694.
Gilmore, R. W. 2015. “The Worrying State of the Anti-prison Movement.” Social Justice, February 23. socialjusticejournal.org/the-worrying-state-of-the-anti-prison-movement/.
Gilmore, R. W., and C. Gilmore. 2008. “Restating the Obvious.” In Indefensible Space: The Architecture of the National Insecurity State, edited by M. Sorkin, 141–62. New York: Routledge.
Goldstein, J., and J. D. Goodman. 2013. “Frisking Tactic Yields to a Focus on Youth Gangs.” The New York Times, September 18. nytimes.com/2013/09/19/nyregion/frisking-tactic-yields-to-a-focus-on-youth-gangs.html.
Goodman, P. 2008. “‘It’s Just Black, White, or Hispanic’: An Observational Study of Racializing Moves in California’s Segregated Prison Reception Centers.” Law & Society Review 42, no. 4: 735–70.
Goonewardena, K. 2005. “The Urban Sensorium: Space, Ideology, and the Aestheticization of Politics.” Antipode 37, no. 1: 46–71.
Gorz, A. 1967. Strategy for Labor. Boston: Beacon.
Gottschalk, M. 2006. The Prison and the Gallows: The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gottschalk, M. 2015. Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Gramsci, A. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Edited and translated by Q. Hoare and G. N. Smith. New York: International.
Grattet, R., et al. 2008. Parole Violations and Revocations in California: Report Submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/224521.pdf.
Grawert, A., and N. Camhi. 2017. “Criminal Justice in President Trump’s First 100 Days.” Brennan Center for Justice, April 20. brennancenter.org/publication/criminal-justice-president-trumps-first-100-days.
Gross, A. 2014. “Detroit’s New Policing Strategy Is Stop-and-Frisk on a Massive Scale.” Vice, September 18. vice.com/read/detroit-broken-windows-policing-918.
Hacking, I. 2002. Historical Ontology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Hackman, R. 2014. “Bratton-style Policing Means More Fines and Arrests for Black Residents of Detroit.” The Guardian, September 7. theguardian.com/money/2014/sep/07/safer-detroit-fines-racial-profiling-black-residents.
Hall, S. 1988. “The Toad in the Garden: Thatcherism among the Theorists.” In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, edited by C. Nelson, 35–73. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Hall, S., et al. 1978. Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State, and Law and Order. New York: Holmes and Meier.
Hall, T. 2000. “Habits/Bedford-Stuyvesant; Finding a Townhouse with a Sense of History.” The New York Times, April 30. nytimes.com/2000/04/30/realestate/habitats-bedford-stuyvesant-finding-a-town-house-with-a-sense-of-history.html.
Hallett, M. 2012. “Reentry to What? Theorizing Prisoner Reentry in the Jobless Future.” Critical Criminology 20, no. 3: 213–28.
Hancock, A. 2004. The Politics of Disgust: The Public Identity of the Welfare Queen. New York: New York University Press.
Haney, L. 2010. Offending Women: Power, Punishment, and the Regulation of Desire. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hannah-Moffat, K., and M. Lynch. 2012. “Theorizing Punishment’s Boundaries: An Introduction.” Theoretical Criminology 16, no. 2: 119–21.
Harcourt, B. 2001. Illusion of Order: The False Promise of Broken Windows Policing. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Harcourt, B. 2010. “Neoliberal Penality: A Brief Genealogy.” Theoretical Criminology 14, no. 1: 74–92.
Harney, S., and F. Moten. 2013. The Undercommons: Fugitive Planning & Black Study. New York: Minor Compositions.
Harvey, D. 1973. Social Justice and the City. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Harvey, D. 1990. The Condition of Postmodernity. Cambridge: Blackwell.
Harvey, D. 1996. Justice, Nature, and the Geography of Difference. Oxford: Blackwell.
Harvey, D. 2004. “The ‘New’ Imperialism: On Spatio-temporal Fixes and Accumulation by Dispossession.” The Socialist Register 40: 63–87.
Harvey, D. 2005. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Herbert, S., and E. Brown. 2006. “Conceptions of Space and Crime in the Punitive Neoliberal City.” Antipode 38, no. 4: 755–77.
Hinds, O., and J. Norton. 2018. “Crisis at the Crossroads of America.” Vera Institute of Justice. vera.org/in-our-backyards-stories/crisis-at-the-crossroads-of-america.
Hochschild, A. 2003 . The Second Shift. Toronto: Penguin.
Hooks, G., et al. 2010. “Revisiting the Impact of Prison Building on Job Growth: Education, Incarceration, and County-level Employment, 1976–2004.” Social Science Quarterly 91, no. 1: 228–44.
Huling, T. 2002. “Building a Prison Economy in Rural America.” In Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment, edited by M. Mauer and M. Chensey-Lind, 197–213. New York: New Press.
Irwin, J. 1980. Prisons in Turmoil. Boston: Little, Brown.
Jay, M. 2017. “Policing the Poor in Detroit.” Monthly Review, January, 21–35.
Jay, M., and P. Conklin. 2017. “Detroit and the Political Origins of ‘Broken Windows’ Policing.” Race & Class 49, no.2: 26–48.
Jencks, C., and S. Mayer. 1990. “The Social Consequences of Growing Up in a Poor Neighborhood.” In Inner City Poverty in the United States, edited by L. Lynn and M. McGeary, 111–86. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Jennings, A. 2013. “L.A. Sees Parks as a Weapon against Sex Offenders.” Los Angeles Times, February 28. articles.latimes.com/2013/feb/28/local/la-me-parks-sex-offenders-20130301.
Johnson, M. 2013. “Why America’s Women of Color Have Lost Ground since the Great Recession.” Scholars Strategy Network, July. scholars.org/sites/scholars/files/ssn_basic_facts_johnson_on_how_women_of_color_fared_during_the_great_recession.pdf.
Joseph, M. 2002. Against the Romance of Community. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Kaeble, D., and T. P. Bonczar. 2016. “Probation and Parole in the United States.” Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 21. bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5784.
Katz, C. 2001. “Vagabond Capitalism and the Necessity of Social Reproduction.” Antipode 33, no. 4: 708–27.
Katz, C. 2005. “Partners in Crime? Neoliberalism and the Production of New Political Subjectivities.” Antipode 37, no. 3: 623–31.
Kelley, R. D. G. 2013. “The U.S. v. Trayvon Martin: How the System Worked.” The Huffington Post, July 15. huffingtonpost.com/robin-d-g-kelley/nra-stand-your-ground-trayvon-martin_b_3599843.html.
Kelling, G. 2015. “Don’t Blame My Broken Windows Theory for Poor Policing.” Politico Magazine, August 11. politico.com/magazine/story/2015/08/broken-windows-theory-poor-policing-ferguson-kelling-121268.
Kenney, M. R. 2001. Mapping Gay L.A. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet. 2016. Kentucky Quarterly Coal Report, January–March. eec.ky.gov/Pages/OpenRecords.aspx.
Kentucky Office of Energy Policy. n.d. “Expanded Online Kentucky Coal Facts.” Kentucky Coal Education. coaleducation.org/Ky_coal_facts/.
Kilgore, J. 2013. “Progress or More of the Same? Electronic Monitoring and Parole in the Age of Mass Incarceration.” Critical Criminology 21, no. 1: 123–39.
Kilgore, J. 2014a. “Repackaging Mass Incarceration: The Rise of Carceral Humanism and Non-alternative Alternatives.” Counterpunch, June 6–8. counterpunch.org/2014/06/06/repackaging-mass-incarceration/.
Kilgore, J. 2014b. “Interview with Monica Jahner.” Voice of the Monitored, May 6. voiceofthemonitored.com/2014/05/06/interview-with-monica-jahner-northwest-initiative-lansing-mi/.
Kilgore, J. 2016. “E-Carceration: The Problematic World of Being on an Electronic Monitor.” Voice of the Monitored, October 20. voiceofthemonitored.com/2016/10/27/e-carceration-the-problematic-world-of-being-on-an-electronic-monitor/.
Kilpatrick, D. G., et al. 1992. Rape in America: A Report to the Nation. Arlington, Va.: National Victim Center.
Koran, M. 2013. “Lost Signals, Disconnected Lives.” WisconsinWatch.org, March 24. wisconsinwatch.org/2013/03/lost-signals-disconnected-lives/.
Lefebvre, H. 1974 [reprinted 1991]. The Production of Space. Translated by D. Nicholson-Smith. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lefebvre, H. 1976. “Reflections on the Politics of Space.” Translated by M. Enders. Antipode 8, no. 2: 31–37.
Lewis, O. 1961. The Children of Sanchez. New York: Random House.
Lewis, O. 1966. La Vida: A Puerto Rican Family in the Culture of Poverty—San Juan and New York. New York: Random House.
Li, T. 2009. “To Make Life or Let Die? Rural Dispossession and the Protection of Surplus Populations.” Antipode 41: 66–93.
Linebaugh, P. 2004 [reprinted 2006]. The London Hanged. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Linebaugh, P. 2015. “Police and Plunder.” Counterpunch, February 13–15. counterpunch.org/2015/02/13/police-and-plunder/.
Lipsitz, G. 2004. “Learning from Los Angeles: Another One Rides the Bus.” American Quarterly 56, no. 3: 511–29.
Lockwood, F. E. 2002. “Kentucky Federal Prison Sinking Even before It’s Finished.” Lexington Herald-Leder, July 24. highbeam.com/doc/1G1-89580357.html.
Logan, J. R., and B. J. Stults. 2011. “The Persistence of Segregation in the Metropolis: New Findings from the 2010 Census.” US2010 Project, March 24. s4.ad.brown.edu/Projects/Diversity/Data/Report/report2.pdf.
Lovett, I. 2013. “Neighborhoods Seek to Banish Sex Offenders by Building Parks.” The New York Times, March 9. nytimes.com/2013/03/10/us/building-tiny-parks-to-drive-sex-offenders-away.html.
Lowrey, A. 2014. “Income Gap, Meet the Longevity Gap.” The New York Times, March 15. nytimes.com/2014/03/16/business/income-gap-meet-the-longevity-gap.html.
Malcolm X Grassroots Movement. 2012. Operation Ghetto Storm: 2012 Annual Report on the Extrajudicial Killing of Black People. April. mxgm.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Operation-Ghetto-Storm.pdf.
Manhattan Institute. n.d. “Motor City Implements Proven ‘Broken Windows’ Policing Strategy.” Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, On the Ground. manhattan-institute.org/on-the-ground/detroit-policing-strategy.
Mann, E. 2004. “Los Angeles Bus Riders Derail the MTA.” In Highway Robbery: Transportation Racism and New Routes to Equity, edited by R. D. Bullard, G. S. Johnson, and A. O. Torres, 33–47. Cambridge, Mass.: South End.
Mantle, L. 2013. “Harbor Gateway’s Pocket Park Solution to Sex Offenders.” Interview: Joe Buscaino, Janice Bellucci, Angel Jennings, and Janet Shour. Air Talk, March 1. scpr.org/programs/airtalk/2013/03/01/30735/harbor-gateway-s-pocket-park/.
Marx, K. 1976 [originally 1876, reprinted 1990]. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Volume 1. Translated by B. Fowkes. New York: Vintage.
Massey, D. B. 1994. Space, Place, and Gender. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Mauer, M. 2011. “Sentencing Reform: Amid Mass Incarcerations—Guarded Optimism.” Criminal Justice 26: 27–39.
McNally, D. 2011. Global Slump: The Economics and Politics of Crisis and Resistance. Oakland, Calif.: PM Press.
Medina, J. 2017. “Gang Database Criticized for Denying Due Process May Be Used for Deportations.” The New York Times, January 10. nytimes.com/2017/01/10/us/gang-database-criticized-for-denying-due-process-may-be-used-for-deportations.html.
Meiners, E. R. 2009. “Never Innocent: Feminist Trouble with Sex Offender Registries and Protection in a Prison Nation.” Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 9, no. 2: 31–62.
Meiners, E. R. 2011. “Ending the School-to-Prison Pipeline/Building Abolition Futures.” Urban Review: Issues and Ideas in Public Education, no. 4: 547–65.
Miller, R. J. 2013. “Devolving the Carceral State: Race, Prisoner Reentry, and the Micro-politics of Urban Poverty Management,” Punishment & Society 16, no. 3: 305–35.
Mishel, L., et al. 2012. The State of Working America. 12th ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Moten, F. 2014. “Do Black Lives Matter? Robin D. G. Kelley and Fred Moten in Conversation.” Critical Resistance, December 13. vimeo.com/116111740.
Mountain Eagle Staff. 2012. “Training for Prison Jobs Coming.” The Mountain Eagle, December 19. themountaineagle.com/articles/training-for-prison-jobs-coming/.
Muhammad, K. G. 2011. The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Muniz, A. 2014. “Maintaining Racial Boundaries: Criminalization, Neighborhood Context, and the Origins of Gang Injunctions.” Social Problems 61, no. 2: 216–36.
Murphy, E. 2008. “Paradigms of Restraint.” Duke Law Journal 57: 1321–411.
Nagourney, A. 2016. “Aloha and Welcome to Paradise. Unless You’re Homeless.” The New York Times, June 3. nytimes.com/2016/06/04/us/hawaii-homeless-criminal-law-sitting-ban.html.
National Institute of Justice / U.S. Department of Justice. 2011. Electronic Monitoring Reduces Recidivism. September. ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/234460.pdf.
National Institute of Justice / U.S. Department of Justice. 2016. “Race, Trust, and Political Legitimacy.” National Institute of Justice, July 14. nij.gov/topics/law-enforcement/legitimacy/Pages/welcome.aspx.
National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty. 2014. NO SAFE PLACE: The Criminalization of Homelessness in U.S. Cities. nlchp.org/documents/No_Safe_Place.
Nevins, J. 2002. Operation Gatekeeper: The Rise of the “Illegal Alien” and the Remaking of the U.S.–Mexico Boundary. New York: Routledge.
New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2015. Community Health Profile, Brooklyn Community District 15: Brownsville (Including Broadway Junction, Brownsville, and Ocean Hill). nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/data/2015chp-bk16.pdf.
New York Civil Liberties Union. 2018. “Stop-and-Frisk Data.” NYCLU. nyclu.org/en/stop-and-frisk-data.
New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision. 2014. Under Custody Report: Profile of Under Custody Population as of January 1, 2014. doccs.ny.gov/Research/Reports/2014/UnderCustody_Report_2014.pdf.
Newman, J. 2011. “In Judge Nikkia’s Court: A Response to Teen Crime.” The Brooklyn Ink, July 20. brooklynink.org/2011/07/20/26623-in-judge-nikkias-court-a-response-to-teen-crime/.
Norton, J. 2016. “Little Siberia, Star of the North: The Political Economy of Prison Dreams in the Adirondacks.” In Historical Geographies of Prisons: Unlocking the Usable Carceral Past, edited by Karen Morin and Dominique Moran, 168–84. New York, Routledge.
O’Keefe, E. 2014. “Cory Booker, Rand Paul Team Up on Sentencing Reform Bill.” The Washington Post, July 8. washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2014/07/08/cory-booker-rand-paul-team-up-on-sentencing-reform-bill/.
Pager, D. 2003. “The Mark of a Criminal Record.” American Journal of Sociology 108, no. 5: 937–75.
Parenti, C. 1999. Lockdown America: Police and Prisons in the Age of Crisis. London: Verso.
Parks, K. 2013. “‘Reflection Cottages’: The Latest Spa Getaway or Concrete Solitary Confinement Cells for Kids?” ACLU, April 29. aclu.org/blog/reflection-cottages-latest-spa-getaway-or-concrete-solitary-confinement-cells-kids.
Pasternak, S. 2010. “Property in Three Registers.” Scapegoat: Architecture, Landscape, Political Economy, no. 00 (Fall): 10–17.
Patterson, E. J. 2013. “The Dose-Response of Time Served in Prison on Mortality: New York State, 1989–2003.” American Journal of Public Health 103, no. 3: 523–28.
Peck, J. 2003. “Geography and Public Policy: Mapping the Penal State.” Progress in Human Geography 27, no. 2: 222–32.
Peck, J., and N. Theodore. 2008. “Carceral Chicago: Making the Ex-offender Employability Crisis.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 32, no. 2: 251–81.
Petersilia J. 2003. When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pew Center on the States. 2009. One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections. Washington, D.C.: The Pew Charitable Trusts.
Pew Center on the States. 2011. State of Recidivism: The Revolving Door of America’s Prisons. Washington, D.C.: The Pew Charitable Trusts.
Pinto, N. 2016. “NYPD Watchdog Shatters Bratton’s ‘Broken Windows’—Now What?” The Village Voice, June 28. villagevoice.com/2016/06/28/nypd-watchdog-shatters-brattons-broken-windows-now-what/.
Potter, M. 2009. “Prescription Drug Abuse Ravages a State’s Youth.” NBCNEWS.com, July 6. msnbc.msn.com/id/31707246/ns/health-addictions/t/prescription-drug-abuse-ravages-states-youth/.
Prison Talk. n.d. “Flamboyant / Prison Gap Bus Services Info and Experiences.” Prison Talk Forum. prisontalk.com/forums/archive/index.php/t-178558.html.
Public Safety Performance Project and Pew Charitable Trusts. 2016. Use of Electronic Offender-tracking Devices Expands Sharply. September 7. pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/issue-briefs/2016/09/use-of-electronic-offender-tracking-devices-expands-sharply.
Rainwater, L., and W. Yancey. 1967. The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Reiter, K. 2012. “The Most Restrictive Alternative: A Litigation History of Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons, 1960–2006.” In Studies in Law, Politics, and Society 57: 71–124.
Rhodes, L. A. 2004. Total Confinement: Madness and Reason in the Maximum Security Prison. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Roberts, S. 2011. “Striking Change in Bedford-Stuyvesant as the White Population Soars.” The New York Times, August 4. nytimes.com/2011/08/05/nyregion/in-bedford-stuyvesant-a-black-stronghold-a-growing-pool-of-whites.html.
Robinson, C. 1983 [reprinted 2001]. Black Marxism: the Making of the Black Radical Tradition. London: Zed Books.
Rodriguez, D. 2006. Forced Passages: Imprisoned Radical Intellectuals and the U.S. Prison Regime. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Rose, N. 1999. Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press.
Ross, K. 2016. Communal Luxury: The Political Imaginary of the Paris Commune. New York: Verso.
Rothman, D. J. 1971 [reprinted 2002]. The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic. Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter.
Rousseau, M. 2009. “Re-imaging the City Centre for the Middle Classes: Regeneration, Gentrification, and Symbolic Policies in Loser Cities.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33, no. 3: 770–88.
Ryerson, S. R. 2010. “Prison Progress . . . Neocolonialism as a Relocation Project in ‘Post Racial’ America: An Appalachian Case or Listening to the Canaries in the Coal Mine.” Honors thesis, Wesleyan University.
Ryerson, S. 2013. “Speak Your Piece: Prison Progress?” The Daily Yonder, February 20. dailyyonder.com/speak-your-piece-prison-progress/2013/02/12/5651#comments.
Saletan, W. 2005. “Call My Cell: Why GPS Tracking Is Good News for Inmates.” Slate, May 7. slate.com/articles/health_and_science/human_nature/2005/05/call_my_cell.html.
Sampson, R., et al. 2002. “Assessing ‘Neighborhood Effects’: Social Processes and New Directions.” Annual Review of Sociology 28: 443–78.
Sante, L. 1991. Low Life. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Schenwar, M. 2015. “Your Home Is Your Prison: How to Lock Down Your Neighborhood, Your Country, and You.” TruthDig, January 19. truthdig.com/report/item/your_home_is_your_prison_20150119.
Schept, J. 2013b. “Rejecting Future Prisons.” Reclaim Justice Network, July 2. downsizingcriminaljustice.wordpress.com/2013/07/02/rejecting-future-prisons/.
Schept, J. 2014a. “(Un)seeing Like a Prison: Counter-visual Ethnography of the Carceral State.” Theoretical Criminology 18, no. 2: 198–223.
Schept, J. 2014b. “Prison Re-Form: The Continuation of the Carceral State.” Tennessee Studies and Educators for Social Justice, July 15. tnsocialjustice.wordpress.com/2014/07/15/prison-re-form-the-continuation-of-the-carceral-state/.
Schept, J. 2015 Progressive Punishment: Job Loss, Jail Growth, and the Neoliberal Logic of Carceral Expansion. New York: New York University Press.
Schept, J. 2017, “Sunk Capital, Sinking Prisons, Stinking Landfills: Landscape, Ideology, and the Carceral State in Central Appalachia.” In Routledge International Handbook of Visual Criminology, edited by Michelle Brown and Eamonn Carrabine, 497–513. New York: Routledge.
Schrader, S. 2016. “Against the Romance of Community Policing.” Stuart Schrader (blog), August 10. stuartschrader.com/blog/against-romance-community-policing.
Scott, R. 2010. Removing Mountains: Extracting Nature and Identity in the Appalachian Coalfields. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Segal, D. 2013. “A Missionary’s Quest to Remake Motor City.” The New York Times, April 13. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/14/business/dan-gilberts-quest-to-remake-downtown-detroit.html.
Simon, J. 1993. Poor Discipline: Parole and the Social Control of the Underclass, 1890–1990. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Simon, J. 2003. Governing through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear. New York: Oxford University Press.
Singh, N. P. 2003. Black Is a Country: Race and the Unfinished Struggle for Democracy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Slaven, J. 2004. “Pine Knot Penitentiary Dedicated, Inmates Will Arrive Soon.” McCreary County Record, April 6.
Smith, C. 2011a. “The Carceral Continuum” (interview with Silence Opens Doors online magazine). April 13, 2011. Select video at youtube.com/watch?v=YXEQRffaEm4 (3:17) and youtube.com/watch?v=NUXSBl445lM (3:55). Textual introduction by George Jackson at web.archive.org/web/20160525062153/http://www.silenceopensdoors.com/2011/04/13/the-carceral-continuum-interview-with-caleb-smith/.
Smith, C. 2011b. The Prison and the American Imagination. Yale Studies in English. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Smith, N. 1984. Uneven Development: Nature, Capital, and the Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell.
Smith, N. 1996. The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City. New York: Routledge.
Smith, N. 2002. “New Globalism, New Urbanism: Gentrification as Global Urban Strategy.” Antipode 34, no. 3: 427–50.
Smith, S. J. 2013. “Closing in on Brownsville: Brooklyn Gentrification Nears the Final Frontier.” The New York Observer, May 14. observer.com/2013/05/closing-in-on-brownsville-brooklyn-gentrification-nears-the-final-frontier/.
Soja, E. W. 1980. “The Socio-spatial Dialectic.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 70, no. 2: 207–25.
Sorge, M. 2013. “Dan Gilbert and Rock Ventures Own or Control 30 Properties Downtown.” Detroit Unspun, July 17. blog.thedetroithub.com/2013/07/17/dan-gilbert-and-rock-ventures-own-or-control-more-than-30-properties-downtown/.
Staples, W., and S. Decker. 2011. “Between the ‘Home’ and ‘Institutional’ Worlds: Tensions and Contradictions in the Practice of House Arrest.” Critical Criminology 18: 1–20.
Stein, D. 2014a. “Keyword: Labor.” Panel presentation, annual meeting of the American Studies Association, Los Angeles, November 6–9.
Stein, D. 2014b. “Full Employment for the Future.” Lateral, no. 3. http://csalateral.org/issue3/theory/stein.
Stein, D. 2014c. “Fearing Inflation, Inflating Fears: The End of Full Employment and the Rise of the Carceral State.” PhD diss., University of Southern California.
Story, B. 2016. The Prison in Twelve Landscapes. 90:00. Grasshopper Films.
Story, B., and J. Schept. Forthcoming. “Against Punishment: Centering Work, Wages, and Uneven Development in Mapping the Carceral State.” Social Justice.
Takei, C. 2014. “Prisons Are Adopting the Wal-Mart Business Model.” Huffington Post: The Blog, September 29. huffingtonpost.com/carl-takei/prisons-walmart-business-model_b_5900964.html.
Taylor, K-Y. 2016. From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation. Chicago: Haymarket.
Teal, C., and T. Lessin. 2014. “The Next Phase of the Koch Brothers’ War on Unions.” The Daily Beast, December 12. thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/12/22/the-next-phase-of-the-koch-brothers-war-on-unions.html.
Travis, J. 2007. “Reflections on the Reentry Movement.” Federal Sentencing Reporter 20, no. 1: 84–87.
Travis, J., and B. Western, eds. 2014. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
U.S. Attorney General. 2017. “Memorandum for All Federal Prosecutors Re: Department Charging and Sentencing Policy.” The Washington Post, May 10. apps.washingtonpost.com/g/documents/national/jeff-sessionss-criminal-charging-policy/2432/.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2010. Decennial Census of Population and Housing, 2010. census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census/decade.2010.html.
U.S. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. 1968. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Washington, D.C.: United States Federal Government, 1968.
Van Parijs, P., ed. 1992. Arguing for Basic Income: Ethical Foundations for a Radical Reform. London: Verso.
Vanhemert, K. 2013. “The Best Map Ever Made of America’s Racial Segregation.” Wired, August 26. wired.com/2013/08/how-segregated-is-your-city-this-eye-opening-map-shows-you/#slideid-210281.
Vera Institute. 2018. “People in Prison 2017.” Vera Institute of Justice, May. vera.org/publications/people-in-prison-2017.
Vitullo-Martin, J. 2013. “Is Brownsville Brooklyn Ready for Its Jane Jacobsian Comeback?” Untapped Cities, January 17. http://untappedcities.com/2013/01/17/brownsville-brooklyn-ready-for-comeback/.
Wacquant, L. 2002. “From Slavery to Mass Incarceration: Rethinking the ‘Race Question’ in the US.” New Left Review 13: 41–60.
Wacquant, L. 2009a. Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Governance of Social Insecurity. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Wacquant, L. 2009b. Prisons of Poverty. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Wagner, P. 2003. “The Prison Index: Taking the Pulse of the Crime Control Industry.” Prison Policy Initiative. prisonpolicy.org/prisonindex/variation.html.
Wagner, P., and R. B. Rabuy. 2017. “Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017.” Prison Policy Initiative. March 14. prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2017.html.
Walkerdine, V. 2003. “Reclassifying Upward Mobility: Femininity and the Neoliberal Subject.” Gender and Education 15, no. 3: 237–48.
Walsh, M. 2010. “Gender on the Road in the United States: By Motor Car or Motor Coach?” The Journal of Transport History 31, no. 2: 210–230.
Western, B., and K. Beckett. 1999. “How Unregulated Is the U.S. Labor Market? The Penal System as a Labor Market Institution.” American Journal of Sociology 104, no. 4: 1030–60.
Whitlock, K. 2017. “Endgame: How ‘Bipartisan Criminal Justice Reform’ Institutionalizes a Right-wing, Neoliberal Agenda.” Political Research Associates, June 6. politicalresearch.org/2017/06/06/endgame-how-bipartisan-criminal-justice-reform-institutionalizes-a-right-wing-neoliberal-agenda.
Williams, E. J. 2011. The Big House in a Small Town: Prisons, Communities, and Economics in Rural America. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger.
Williams, R. 1977a. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. New York: Oxford University Press.
Williams, R. 1977b. “Structures of Feeling.” In Marxism and Literature, 128–36. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Winsa, P. 2008. “Lock-’em-up Laws Infect Entire Neighborhoods.” The Toronto Star, July 24. thestar.com/news/crime/crime/2008/07/24/lockemup_laws_infect_entire_neighbourhoods.html.