1. Joey Gibson, interview with the authors, April 29, 2018. Gibson lost the Republican primary in early August, garnering less than 3 percent of the vote. “Cantwell, Hutchison Advance in Senate Race; Joey Gibson Loses Big,” Oregon Live, August 7, 2018, https://www.oregonlive.com/pacific-northwest-news/index.ssf/2018/08/cantwell_hutchison_advance_in.html.
2. Katie Shepard, “Police in Vancouver Arrest Man for Nearly Running Down Antifa Protesters with His Truck,” Willamette Week, September 10, 2017; Patrick May, “Who’s behind This Weekend’s Right-Wing Rally at Crissy Field?” San Jose Mercury News, August 23, 2017; “14 Arrested as Pro-Trump Rally Draws Massive Counter-protests in Portland,” Chicago Tribune, June 4, 2017.
3. Jason Wilson, “Portland Knife Attack: Tension High as ‘Free Speech Rally’ Set for Weekend,” Guardian, May 29, 2017.
4. Jason Wilson, “How a Gun-Carrying, Far-Right Activist Plots a Run at the US Senate,” Guardian, June 3, 2018. Our analysis of Gibson and Patriot Prayer is informed by our interview with Gibson, observation of several far-right and militia rallies in the Northwest in 2016 and 2017, and discussions with journalists Jason Wilson and Arun Gupta, who have covered Gibson and Patriot Prayer closely.
5. See, for example, the images and videos gathered in “Unite the Right, Patriot Prayer, Joey Gibson, and the Proud Boys,” It’s Going Down, August 2, 2018, https://itsgoingdown.org/unite-the-right-patriot-prayer-joey-gibson-the-proud-boys/, and by journalist Arun Gupta, https://twitter.com/arunindy?lang=en.
6. Jonathan Cohn, “Why Public Employees are the New Welfare Queens,” New Republic, August 8, 2010, https://newrepublic.com/article/76884/why-your-fireman-has-better-pension-you; Joshua Holland, “Public Employees: The 21st Century’s Welfare Queens,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 14, 2010; Randy Albelda, “Teachers, Secretaries, and Social Workers: The New Welfare Moms?” Dollars & Sense, May/June 2011, 6–17.
7. Larry Bartels, Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age (New York: Sage, 2018).
8. "Wealth by Decile,” Survey of Consumer Finances 2016, Federal Reserve System, https://www.federalreserve.gov/econres/scfindex.htm.
9. Quoted in George Lipsitz, The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998), 183.
10. Timothy Sandefur, Frederick Douglass: Self-Made Man (Santa Monica: Cato, 2018). See also David W. Blight, “How the Right Co-opts Frederick Douglass,” New York Times, February 13, 2018. Blight writes: “At the unveiling ceremony for the statue of Douglass in the United States Capitol in 2013, congressional Republicans proudly wore large buttons that read, ‘Frederick Douglass Was a Republican.’ Douglass’s descendants who were there, as well as scholars like me with, shall we say, different training, smiled and endured.”
11. Stuart Hall and Doreen Massey, “Interpreting the Crisis,” Soundings, no. 44 (Spring 2010): 64.
12. Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1971); Stuart Hall, “Race, Articulation and Societies Structured in Dominance,” in Sociological Theories: Race and Colonialism (Paris: UNESCO, 1980), 305–45. Attention to a new conjuncture does not mean, in Hall’s terms, “the substitution of one mode for another.” Earlier formations “have not and cannot possibly disappear.” Instead, new developments and modes of conflict do “to some degree displace, reorganize and reposition the different cultural strategies in relation to one another.” Stuart Hall, “New Ethnicities,” in Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, ed. Kuan-Hsing Chen and David Morley (London: Routledge, 1996), 442.
13. The rise in organized white-supremacist activity preceded the Trump campaign and presidency. See, for example, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Rightwing Extremism: Current Economic and Political Climate Fueling Resurgence in Radicalization and Recruitment, April 7, 2009, https://fas.org/irp/eprint/rightwing.pdf.
14. Laura Smith Park, “UN Warns United States over Racist Rhetoric,” CNN, August 23, 2017.
15. W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America: An Essay toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in an Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860–1880 (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1935).
16. Adolph Reed and Merlin Chowkwanyun, “Race, Class, Crisis: The Discourse of Racial Disparities and Its Analytical Discontents,” Socialist Register 48 (2012): 48.
17. Barbara Fields and Karen Fields, Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life (London: Verso, 2012), 18.
18. Adolph Reed Jr., “Splendors and Miseries of the Antiracist ‘Left,’” November 6, 2016, https://nonsite.org/editorial/splendors-and-miseries-of-the-antiracist-left-2.
19. Jacqueline Jones, A Dreadful Deceit: The Myth of Race from the Colonial Era to Obama’s America (New York: Basic Books, 2013), x.
20. Hall, “Race, Articulation,” 342.
21. Hall, “Race, Articulation,” 341.
22. Hall, “Race, Articulation,” 342.
23. Ruth Wilson Gilmore, “The Worrying State of the Anti-prison Movement,” Social Justice, February 23, 2015.
24. Lisa Duggan, The Twilight of Equality (Boston: Beacon Press, 2002), xvi.
25. Jodi Melamed, “The Spirit of Neoliberalism: From Racial Liberalism to Neoliberal Multiculturalism,” Social Text 24, no. 4 (2006): 1.
26. Melamed, “The Spirit of Neoliberalism,” 14.
27. Simon Marginson, The Dream Is Over: The Crisis of Clark Kerr’s California Idea of Higher Education (Oakland: University of California Press, 2016).
28. James Baldwin, “The Fire Next Time: Letter to My Nephew,” in The Price of the Ticket, ed. James Baldwin (New York: St. Martin’s/Marek, 1985), 334.
29. Natalia Molina, How Race Is Made in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014), 6. If Molina’s racial scripts describe the content or substance of particular racializations, racial transposition refers to the process by which elements of those scripts move from one group to another.
30. As Hall put it, race “floats” as a political signifier, and its meaning is subject to ongoing political struggle. Hall, “Race, Articulation.”
31. Cedric Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of The Black Radical Tradition (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), 26.
32. Molina, How Race Is Made in America, introduction. See also Natalia Molina, Daniel Martinez HoSang, and Ramon Gutiérrez, eds., Relational Formations of Race: Theory, Method, and Practice (Oakland: University of California Press, 2019).
33. Dara Lind, “Trump on Deported Immigrants: ‘They’re Not People. They’re Animals,’” Vox, May 17, 2018.
34. On these origins and connections, see Khalil Gibran Muhammad, The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011); Kelly Lytle Hernández, “Amnesty or Abolition?” Boom: A Journal of California 1, no. 4 (Winter 2011): 54–68; and Patrisia Macías-Rojas, From Deportation to Prison: The Politics of Immigration Enforcement in Post–Civil Rights America (New York: New York University Press, 2016).
35. Tiffany Willoughby-Herard, Waste of a White Skin: The Carnegie Corporation and the Racial Logic of White Vulnerability (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015), 1.
1. “Parasites of Government”
1. Rush Limbaugh, “Union Thugs: ‘Raise My Taxes!’” The Rush Limbaugh Show, May 19, 2011.
2. Rush Limbaugh, “We’ve Reached the Tipping Point,” The Rush Limbaugh Show, February 18, 2011.
3. Steven Greenhouse, “Strained States Turning to Laws to Curb Labor Unions,” New York Times, January 3, 2011.
4. Ben Smith and Maggie Haberman, “Pols Turn on Labor Unions,” Politico, June 6, 2010. See also Joseph McCartin, “Convenient Scapegoat: Public Workers under Assault,” Dissent, Spring 2011, https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/convenient-scapegoat-public-workers-under-assault.
5. Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort (New York: Guilford Press, 2000); Linda Gordon and Nancy Fraser, “A Genealogy of Dependency: Tracing a Keyword of the U.S. Welfare State,” Signs 19, no. 2 (1994): 309–36.
6. Jill Quadagno, The Color of Welfare: How Racism Undermined the War on Poverty (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994); Ange-Marie Hancock, The Politics of Disgust: The Public Identity of the Welfare Queen (New York: New York University Press, 2004); Elena R. Gutiérrez, Fertile Matters: The Politics of Mexican-Origin Women’s Reproduction (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008).
7. David Cooper, Mark Gable, and Algernon Austin, “The Public-Sector Jobs Crisis,” in EPI Briefing Paper (Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute, 2012).
8. Hannah Walker and Dylan Bennett, “The Whiteness of Wisconsin’s Wages: Racial Geography and the Defeat of Public Sector Labor Unions in Wisconsin,” New Political Science 37, no. 2 (2015): 191.
9. Tim Pawlenty, “Government Unions vs. Taxpayers,” Wall Street Journal, December 13, 2010.
10. Following the 2010 elections, the National Conference of State Legislatures reported a significant increase in legislative proposals at the state level seeking to restrict collective bargaining rights and weaken unions. Peter Rachleff, “The Right-to-Work Offensive: Tracking the Spread of the Anti-union Virus,” New Labor Forum 21, no. 1 (2012): 22–29; Richard B. Freeman and Eunice Han, “The War against Public Sector Collective Bargaining in the US,” Journal of Industrial Relations 54, no. 3 (2012): 393.
11. M. Jaqui Alexander, Pedagogies of Crossing: Meditations on Feminism, Sexual Politics, Memory, and the Sacred (Durham: Duke University Press, 2006), 99.
12. We build on the work of other scholars who have demonstrated that there have never been separate systems of race and class in the United States, and that indeed capitalism and racial domination have been historically coterminous. See, for instance, Edward Baptist, The Half That Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (New York: Basic Books, 2014); Robin D. G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists during the Great Depression (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990); Adolph Reed, “Unraveling the Relation of Race and Class in American Politics,” in Political Power and Social Theory, vol. 15, ed. Diane E. Davis (West Yorkshire: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Adolph Reed), 265–74; and Cedric Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000).
13. Ira Katznelson, When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Norton, 2005). See also Jonathan Cohn, “Why Public Employees Are the New Welfare Queens,” New Republic, August 7, 2010, https://newrepublic.com/article/76884/why-your-fireman-has-better-pension-you.
14. Steve Fraser and Joshua B. Freeman, “In the Rearview Mirror: A Brief History of Opposition to Public Sector Unionism,” New Labor Forum 20, no. 3 (2011): 93–96.
15. Nelson Lichtenstein and Elizabeth Tandy Shermer, “Introduction,” in The Right and Labor in America: Politics, Ideology, and Imagination, ed. Nelson Lichtenstein and Elizabeth Tandy Shermer (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), 8. See also Joseph McCartin and Jean-Christian Vinel, “Compulsory Unionism: Sylvester Petro and the Career of an Anti-union Idea,” in Lichtenstein and Shermer, The Right and Labor in America, 226–51.
16. See, for example, Don Bellante and James Long, “The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society: The Case of Public Employees and Their Unions,” Journal of Labor Research 2, no. 1 (1981): 1–14.
17. Lichtenstein and Shermer, The Right and Labor in America, 3–4.
18. Steven Greenhut, “Out of the Way, Peasants,” Orange County Register, April 20, 2008.
19. Steven Greenhut, Plunder! How Public Employee Unions Are Raiding Treasuries, Controlling Our Lives, and Bankrupting the Nation (Santa Ana, Calif.: Forum Press, 2009), 3. Other conservative critiques of public-sector unions include Daniel DiSalvo, Government Unions and the Bankrupting of America (New York: Encounter Books, 2011); and Mallory Factor, Shadowbosses: Government Unions Control America and Rob Taxpayers Blind (New York: Center Street, 2012).
20. Four years after signing Act 10, the 2011 legislation that weakened public-sector unions, Walker signed much broader “right to work” legislation that affected both public-sector and private-sector unions. Craig Gilbert, “Walker’s Support of Right to Work Could Alter Union Equation,” Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, March 4, 2015.
21. Limbaugh, “Union Thugs.”
22. Berlet and Lyons, Right-Wing Populism.
23. Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).
24. Walker and Bennett, “The Whiteness of Wisconsin’s Wages”; Dan Kaufman, “Scott Walker and the Fate of the Union,” New York Times Magazine, June 14, 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/14/magazine/scott-walker-and-the-fate-of-the-union.html.
25. David Corn, “SECRET VIDEO: Romney Tells Millionaire Donors What He Really Thinks of Obama Voters,” Mother Jones, September 18, 2012, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/09/secret-video-private-romney-fundraiser.
26. Alexander Saxton, The Rise and Fall of the White Republic: Class Politics and Mass Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Verso, 1990); Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion: An American History (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998).
27. Ralph Chaplin, Wobbly: The Rough-and-Tumble Story of an American Radical (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948), 167–68.
28. J. Sakai, Settlers: The Mythology of the White Proletariat, 3rd ed. (Chicago: Morningstar Press, 1989), chapter 2. For a discussion of this work, see Daniel Berger, “Subjugated Knowledges: Activism, Scholarship, and Ethnic Studies Ways of Knowing,” in Critical Ethnic Studies: A Reader, ed. Critical Ethnic Studies Editorial Collective (Durham: Duke University Press, 2016), 215–30.
29. Dan Carter, From George Wallace to Newt Gingrich: Race in the Conservative Counterrevolution, 1963–1994 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996); Joseph E. Lowndes, From the New Deal to the New Right: Race and the Southern Origins of Modern Conservatism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2008).
30. Thomas Byrne Edsall and Mary D. Edsall, Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics (New York: Norton, 1992); Todd Gitlin, The Twilight of Common Dreams: Why America Is Wracked with Culture Wars (New York: Holt, 1996).
31. David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (New York: Verso, 1999); Eric Lott, Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993); Michael Rogin, Blackface, White Noise: Jewish Immigrants in the Hollywood Melting Pot (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).
32. Daniel HoSang, Racial Propositions: Ballot Initiatives and the Making of Postwar California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010).
33. For a genealogy of racial anti-statism, see Lowndes, From the New Deal to the New Right; for its contemporary effects, see Ian Haney-Lopez, Dog Whistle Politics: How Coded Racial Appeals Have Reinvented Racism and Wrecked the Middle Class (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).
34. On the populist tax revolt in California and its relationship to tax cuts for corporations and the wealthy, see Gilmore, Golden Gulag; Isaac Martin, The Permanent Tax Revolt: How the Property Tax Transformed American Politics (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008); and Kitty Calavita, “The New Politics of Immigration: ‘Balanced Budget Conservatism’ and the Symbolism of Proposition 187,” Social Problems 43, no. 3 (1996): 284–305.
35. Patricia Cohen and Robert Gebeloff, “Public Servants Are Losing Their Foothold in the Middle Class,” New York Times, April 22, 2018.
36. Ruth Milkman and Stephanie Luce, The State of the Unions 2015: A Profile of Organized Labor in New York City, New York State, and the United States (New York: John S. Murphy Institute for Worker Education and Labor Studies, 2015).
37. Cooper, Gable, and Austin, “The Public-Sector Jobs Crisis.”
38. Jennifer Laird, Still an Equal Opportunity Employer? Public Sector Employment Inequality after the Great Recession (Seattle: University of Washington, 2015).
39. Peter Stallybrass and Allon White, The Politics and Poetics of Transgression (London: Methuen, 1986).
40. Micah Uetricht, Strike for America: Chicago Teachers against Austerity (New York: Verso Press, 2014).
41. Lisa Benson, “What Do We Want? We Want More!!” September 12, 2012, townhall.com/political-cartoons/lisabenson/2012/09/12/103371.
42. "Chicago Teachers Union President Karen Lewis Wants to Eat Your Children. With Cheese and Bacon,” Chicago News Bench, September 12, 2012, rogersparkbench.blogspot.com/2012/09/chicago-teachers-union-president-karen.html.
43. Anne Norton, Republic of Signs (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
44. Michelle Malkin, “Chicago Thuggery Personified: Meet Chicago Teachers’ Union President Karen Lewis,” September 10, 2012, http://michellemalkin.com/2012/09/10/chicago-thuggery-personified-meet-chicago-teachers-union-president-karen-lewis/; Michelle Malkin, “‘A’ Is for Agitation,” September 12, 2012, https://www.nationalreview.com/2012/09/agitation-michelle-malkin/.
45. "Embarassing Video: Chicago Teacher’s Union President Karen Lewis Attacks Arne Duncan’s ‘Lisp,’ Jokes about Using Drugs,” Chicago News Report, November 14, 2011.
47. Sewell Chan and Jeremy W. Peters, “Chimp-Stimulus Cartoon Raises Racism Concerns,” City Room (blog), New York Times, February 19, 2009.
49. Mike Lester, “This Is What Democra-(urp!!)cy Looks Like,” March 6, 2011, www.rn-t.com/view/full_story/12168612/article-Mike-Lester-s-Cartoon-03-06-11.
50. Saturday Night Live, season 35, episode 20, April 24, 2010.
51. Marilyn V. Yarbrough and Crystal Bennett, “Cassandra and the ‘Sistahs’: The Peculiar Treatment of African American Women in the Myth of Women as Liars,” Journal of Gender, Race and Justice 3, no. 2 (2000): 626–27.
52. Alexander, Pedagogies of Crossing, 100.
54. AFP California, “Lifeguards Make $200,000/Retire at Age 50 Exposed on Inside Edition with David Spady,” 2012, video file in authors’ possession. See also David Spady, “$200,000 Lifeguards to Receive Millions in Retirement,” Townhall.com, May 8, 2011, https://townhall.com/columnists/davidspady/2011/05/08/$200,000-lifeguards-to-receive-millions-in-retirement-n947640.
55. Emily Foxhall and Jeremiah Dobruck, “Newport Beach Considers Outsourcing Lifeguard Services to Cut Costs,” Los Angeles Times, January 6, 2014.
56. Michael Scott, “Issue 2 Defeated: Million Votes Are in and 63 Percent Say No, AP Says,” Cleveland-Plain Dealer, November 8, 2011.
57. Konrad Yakabuski, “Battle Rages over Ohio’s Union-Limiting Law,” Globe and Mail (Canada), October 29, 2011.
58. Fox WUPW, “John Kasich Discusses Issue 2,” September 29, 2011, 56.
59. Joe Vardon, “Group Raised $42.2 Million in Campaign against Issue 2,” Columbus Dispatch, December 16, 2011.
61. WDTNTV, “Ohio Firefighters Release Ad about Issue 2,” September 2, 2011, 12–13.
63. For theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to the visual culture and union strategy, see Janis Bailey and Di McAtee, “The Politics and Poetics of Union Transgression: The Role of Visual Methods in Analyzing Union Protest Strategy,” Social Analysis 47, no. 3 (2003): 27–45.
64. See Staughton Lynd, Solidarity Unionism: Rebuilding the Labor Movement from Below (Oakland, Calif.: PM Press, 2015); and Thomas Geoghegan, Only One Thing Can Save Us: Why America Needs a New Kind of Labor Movement (New York: The New Press, 2014).
65. Dana Frank, Buy American: The Untold Story of Economic Nationalism (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999).
66. The cases include Harris v. Quinn, 573 U.S. ___ (2014) and Friedrichs v. California Teachers Association, 578 U.S. ___ (2016).
67. Critics of Walker and other anti-union figures pointed to the many tax breaks and subsidies given to wealthy individuals and corporations that increased state and local budget deficits and the tax burdens of middle- and low-income households. Kaufman, “Scott Walker.”
68. Comment posted on Senator Silk’s Facebook page on March 29, 2018, https://www.facebook.com/senatorjosephsilk/; Victoria Pasquantonio, “What You Need to Know about the Oklahoma Teacher Walkout,” PBS Newshour, April 2, 1018.
69. Mary Papenfuss, “Kentucky Gov. Apologizes after Claiming Teacher Protest Would Result in Child Abuse,” Huffington Post, April 13, 2018.
70. Micah Uetricht, Strike for America: Chicago Teachers against Austerity (New York: Verso Press, 2014).
71. Jane McAlevey, “The West Virginia Teachers Strike Shows That Winning Big Requires Creating a Crisis,” The Nation, March 12, 2018.
72. Matt Pearce, “Red-State Revolt Continues: Teachers Strike in Oklahoma and Protest in Kentucky,” Los Angeles Times, April 2, 2018.
73. Amy Chua, Political Tribes: Group Instinct and the Fate of Nations (New York: Penguin, 2018); Thomas Edsall, “Which Side Are You On?” New York Times, May 10, 2018.
2. “The Incomprehensible Malice—of Poor White America”
1. Janelle Jones, “The Racial Wealth Gap,” Working Economics Blog, February 13, 2017; Chuck Collins, Dedrick Asante-Muhammed, Emanuel Nieves, and Josh Hoxie, “The Road to Zero Wealth,” Institute for Policy Studies, September 11, 2017. See also Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, Maggie R. Jones, and Sonya R. Porter, “Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 24441, March 2018.
3. Ira Katznelson, When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Norton, 2005).
4. David Freund, Colored Property: State Policy and White Racial Politics in Suburban America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).
5. M. F. Jacobson, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999).
6. Cheryl Harris, “Whiteness as Property,” Harvard Law Review 106, no. 8 (1993): 1713.
7. Joel Olson, “Whiteness and the Polarization of American Politics,” Political Research Quarterly 61, no. 4 (2008): 708.
8. Olson, “Whiteness,” 708.
9. Olson, “Whiteness,” 709.
10. Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, “The White Power Presidency: Race and Class in the Trump Era,” New Political Science 40 (2018): 111.
11. Tiffany Willoughby-Herard, Waste of a White Skin: The Carnegie Corporation and the Racial Logic of White Vulnerability (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015), 11.
12. James Baldwin, “An Open Letter to My Sister, Miss Angela Davis,” New York Review of Books, January 7, 1971.
13. John Dominis and Michael Murphy, “The Valley of Poverty,” Life, January 31, 1964, 54–65. See also Ben Cosgrove, “War on Poverty: Portraits from an Appalachian Battleground, 1964,” Time, January 7, 2014.
15. Elizabeth Catte, What You Are Getting Wrong about Appalachia (Cleveland: Belt Publishing, 2018).
16. "A Hand Up, Not a Hand Out!” Sargent Shriver Peace Institute, http://www.sargentshriver.org/blog/empowerment-government-and-the-war-on-poverty.
17. See, for example, Robin Averbeck, Liberalism Is Not Enough: Race and Poverty in Postwar Political Thought (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2018).
18. Martin Gilens, Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999); Ange Marie Hancock, The Politics of Disgust: The Public Identity of the Welfare Queen (New York: New York University Press, 2004); Jill Quadagno, The Color of Welfare (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).
19. These figures are from 2014. Jessica L. Semega, Kayla R. Fontenot, and Melissa A. Kollar, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P60-259, Income and Poverty in the United States: 2016 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2017).
20. Khaing Zaw, Jhumpa Bhattacharya, Anne E. Price, Darrick Hamilton, and William Darity Jr., “Women, Race and Wealth,” Research Brief Series, Volume 1: A Joint Publication with the Insight Center for Community Economic Development (Durham: Samuel DuBois Cook Center on Social Equity, 2017).
21. Paul Jargowsky, Architecture of Segregation: Civil Unrest, the Concentration of Poverty, and Public Policy, The Century Foundation, August 7, 2015.
22. Leonard Pitts Jr., “Poverty Doesn’t Have a Skin Color,” Miami Herald, April 4, 2017.
23. The incarceration rate for white men in 2010 was 678 per 100,000 U.S. residents, a threefold increase since 1960. The rate for African American men in 2010 was 4,347 per 100,000, up from 1,313 per 100,000 U.S. residents in 1960. In 2011 the rate for the United States as a whole was 743 per 100,000 in 2010. In 2011 the country with the next-highest rate was Russia at 577 per 100,000 residents. See Bruce Drake, “Incarceration Gap Widens between Whites and Blacks,” September 6, 2013, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/09/06/incarceration-gap-between-whites-and-blacks-widens/; Peter Wagner, “Incarceration Is Not an Equal Opportunity Punishment,” August 28, 2012, https://www.prisonpolicy.org/articles/notequal.html; and International Centre for Prison Studies, “ICPS News Digest 1st Edition,” January/February 2011, http://www.prisonstudies.org/sites/default/files/resources/downloads/icps_news_digest.pdf. See also Ashley Nellis, “The Color of Justice: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in State Prisons,” The Sentencing Project, June 14, 2016.
24. Adam Tooze, “Quantifying Incarceration,” Jacobin Magazine, November 2017.
25. Anne Case and Angus Deaton, “Rising Morbidity and Mortality in Midlife among White Non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st Century,” Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States of America 112, no. 49 (December 2015): 15078–83.
26. Noli Brazil, “Spatial Variation in the Hispanic Paradox: Mortality Rates in New and Established Hispanic US Destinations,” Population, Space and Place 23, no. 1 (2017): 23.
27. Anne Case and Angus Deaton, “Mortality and Morbidity in the 21st Century,” https://www.brookings.edu/bpea-articles/mortality-and-morbidity-in-the-21st-century/.
28. Carol Graham and Sergio Pinto, “Unequal Hopes and Lives in the U.S.: Optimism, Race, Place, and Premature Mortality,” Journal of Population Economics 687, no. 6 (January 2018). It should be noted that the same declining health trends experienced by low-income white households have also been documented among Native Americans and Native Alaskans. See Meredith Shiels et al., “Trends in Premature Mortality in the USA by Sex, Race, and Ethnicity from 1999 to 2014: An Analysis of Death Certificate Data,” Lancet 389.10073 (2017): 1043–54.
29. Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Golden Gulag (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007), 27.
30. Nikhil Pal Singh and Thuy Linh Tu, “Morbid Capitalism and Its Racial Symptoms,” n+1, no. 30 (Winter 2018), https://nplusonemag.com/issue-30/essays/morbid-capitalism/.
31. James Baldwin, “On Being White and Other Lies,” Essence Magazine, April 1984.
32. George Lipsitz, The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998), vii.
33. Rakesh Kochhar and Anthony Cilluffo, “How Wealth Inequality Has Changed in the U.S. since the Great Recession, by Race, Ethnicity and Income,” Pew Research Center, November 1, 2017.
34. Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve (New York: Free Press Publishing, 1994).
35. The tweet was posted on Murdoch’s account on February 1, 2012, https://twitter.com/rupertmurdoch/status/164783729460510720.
36. Emphasis added. Kevin D. Williamson, “The White Ghetto,” National Review, January 9, 2014. For a broader history of this discourse, see Kirstine Taylor, “Untimely Subjects: White Trash and the Making of Racial Innocence in the Postwar South,” American Quarterly 67, no. 1 (2015): 55–79.
37. Williamson, “The White Ghetto,” 2014.
38. Kevin Williamson, “The Father-Führer,” National Review, March 28, 2016.
39. David French, “Working-Class Whites Have Moral Responsibilities—In Defense of Kevin Williamson,” National Review, March 14, 2016.
40. J. D. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis (New York: Harper, 2016), 139.
41. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy, 7.
42. Elizabeth Catte, “The Mythical Whiteness of Trump Country,” Boston Review, November 7, 2017.
43. Mona Charen, “What Hillbilly Elegy Reveals about Trump and America,” National Review, July 28, 2016.
44. "The Decline of the White Working Class: Featuring J. D. Vance and Charles Murray,” video posted by America Enterprise Institute, YouTube, October 11, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_Idvppb_io.
45. Robert Putnam, Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 62.
46. Putnam, Our Kids, 244.
47. Harris, “Whiteness as Property.”
48. Lipsitz, The Possessive Investment in Whiteness.
49. Leti Volpp, “Immigrants outside the Law: President Obama, Discretionary Executive Power, and Regime Change,” Critical Analysis of Law 3 (2016): 385–404.
50. Kate Reilly, “Here Are All the Times Donald Trump Insulted Mexico,” Time, August 31, 2016.
51. Cheryl I. Harris, “Whiteness as Property,” Harvard Law Review, 106, no. 8 (1993): 1714.
52. Carolina Moreno, “9 Outrageous Things Donald Trump Has Said about Latinos,” Huffington Post, November 9, 2016.
53. Jonathan T. Rothwell and Pablo Diego-Rosell, “Explaining Nationalist Political Views: The Case of Donald Trump,” SSRN, November 2, 2016, 1.
54. Daniel Cox, Rachel Lienesch, and Robert P. Jones, “Beyond Economics: Fears of Cultural Displacement Pushed the White Working Class to Trump,” PRRI/The Atlantic Report, May 9, 2017.
55. The PRRI/The Atlantic White Working Class Survey was based on phone interviews with 3,043 people in the United States conducted between September 22 and October 9, 2016.
56. Justin Gest, Tyler Reny, and Jeremy Mayer, “Roots of the Radical Right: Nostalgic Deprivation in the United States and Britain,” Comparative Political Studies 51, no. 13 (2018): 1694–1719.
57. Shannon M. Monnat and David L. Brown, “More Than a Rural Revolt: Landscapes of Despair and the 2016 Presidential Election,” Journal of Rural Studies 55 (2017): 231–33.
58. Carol Anderson, White Rage: The Unspoken Truth of Our Racial Divide (New York: Bloomsbury, 2016).
59. Email dated April 10, 2018, from “Trump Pence Make America Great Again Committee.” In authors’ possession.
60. Singh and Tu, “Morbid Capitalism.”
61. Singh and Tu, “Morbid Capitalism.”
3. “One of Our Own”
1. "Allen West CPAC Speech Closes Conservative Conference,” Huffington Post, posted February 12, 2011, updated December 6, 2017.
2. Quoted in Jessica Taylor, “The Meteoric Rise of Allen West,” National Journal, February 12, 2011.
4. Toni Morrison, “Introduction: Friday on the Potomac,” in Race-ing Justice, En-Gendering Power: Essays on Anita Hill, Clarence Thomas, and the Construction of Social Reality, ed. Toni Morrison (New York: Pantheon, 1992), vii–xix.
5. "Representative Allen West Remarks to the Conservative Political Action Conference,” C-SPAN, February 12, 2011.
6. Amy Sherman, “Allen West Says about 80 House Democrats Are Members of the Communist Party,” Politifact, April 11, 2012.
7. Jennifer Steinhauer, “Black Hopefuls Pick This Year in G.O.P. Races,” New York Times, May 4, 2010.
8. Ryan Girdusky, “Black Republicans Could Make a Comeback in 2014,” Daily Caller, April 24, 2014.
9. Corey D. Fields, Black Elephants in the Room: The Unexpected Politics of African American Republicans (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017); Joshua Farrington, Black Republicans and the Transformation of the GOP (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016); Timothy N. Thurber, Republicans and Race: The GOP’s Frayed Relationship with African Americans, 1945–1974 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2013); Leah Wright Rigueur, The Loneliness of the Black Republican: Pragmatic Politics and the Pursuit of Power (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015); Angela Dillard, Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner Now? Multicultural Conservatism in America (New York: New York University Press, 2001). See also Michael L. Ondaatje, Black Conservative Intellectuals in Modern America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010); Cornel West, “Demystifying the New Black Conservatism,” in Race Matters (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993), 33–46; and Andrea Simpson, The Tie That Binds: Identity and Political Attitudes in the Post–Civil Rights Generation (New York: New York University Press, 1998).
10. Dillard, Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner Now?
11. Trends in Party Affiliation among Demographic Groups, Pew Research Center, March 20, 2018.
12. Rigueur, Loneliness of the Black Republican, 2.
13. Philip Bump, “There Are Likely Fewer Black Delegates to the Republican Convention Than at Any Point in At Least a Century,” Washington Post, July 19, 2016.
14. Two other Black Republicans have served in the House since the 1980s—Gary A. Franks in Connecticut and J. C. Watts in Oklahoma. See Adolph Reed Jr., “The Puzzle of Black Republicans,” New York Times, December 18, 2012.
15. Rigueur, Loneliness of the Black Republican.
16. Victoria Hattam and Joseph Lowndes make a similar point in regard to Condoleezza Rice’s use of the civil rights movement to defend the Iraq War when she was in the George W. Bush administration. See “From Birmingham to Baghdad: The Micropolitics of Regime Change,” in Political Creativity: New Approaches to Institutional Diversity and Change, ed. Gerald Berk, Dennis Galvan, and Victoria Hattam (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013), 211–35.
17. See Manisha Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000).
18. Zev Chafets, “Tim Scott: Black Republican Tea Party Favorite,” Newsweek, November 7, 2010.
19. Nancy Weiss, Farewell to the Party of Lincoln (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983).
20. David A. Bositis, Blacks and the 2004 Democratic National Convention (Washington, D.C.: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 2004), 9, table 1.
21. Quoted in Jason Horowitz, “Rudy’s New South Carolina Co-chair,” New York Observer, June 25, 2007.
22. "Thurmond Says He’ll Seek First District Congressional Seat,” South Carolina Now, January 20, 2010.
23. Jonathan Martin, “Paul Thurmond Charts His Course,” Politico, February 25, 2010.
24. Scott secured 46,884 votes (68 percent) to Thurmond’s 21,706 votes (32 percent). New York Times, December 10, 2008, https://www.nytimes.com/elections/2010/results/primaries/south-carolina.html.
25. "South Carolina Election Results.” New York Times, December 17, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/elections/2014/south-carolina-elections.
26. Scott Huffman, H. Gibbs Knots, and Seth McGee, “History Made: The Rise of Republican Tim Scott,” PS: Political Science & Politics, July 2016.
27. "Council Hopes to End Commandments Suit,” Augusta Chronicle, August 16, 1998.
28. Andrew Shain, “12 Things about Tim Scott,” The State, December 12, 2012.
29. Yvonne Wenger, “Scott Touts S.C.’s Right-to-Work Status,” Post and Courier, November 26, 2009; Associated Press, “S.C. Selects Black GOP Congressman; 1st since 2003,” Washington Post, November 2, 2010.
30. Quoted in Alex Isenstadt, “Palin Backs Scott,” Politico, June 19, 2010.
31. Scott Keyes, “Meet Sen. Tim Scott: The Tea Party Lawmaker Who Wanted to Impeach President Obama and Kick Kids off Food Stamps,” Think Progress, December 17, 2012.
32. Huffman, Knots, and McGee, “History Made,” 407.
33. Huffman, Knots, and McGee, “History Made,” 410
34. M. V. Hood and Seth C. McKee, “True Colors: White Conservative Support for Minority Republican Candidates,” Public Opinion Quarterly 79, no. 1 (January 2015): 28.
35. Huffman, Knots, and McGee, “History Made,” 407.
36. Huffman, Knots, and McGee, “History Made,” 407.
37. Ben Terris, “The Undercover Senator: Tim Scott Goes Anecdote Shopping in South Carolina,” Washington Post, May 7, 2014.
38. Quoted in Louise Radnofsky, “GOP’s Tim Scott Pulls Ahead in S.C. House Primary,” Wall Street Journal Blog, June 8, 2012.
39. Quoted in Robert Behre, “Scott Easily Defeats Thurmond for GOP Nod,” Post and Courier, June 22, 2010.
40. Quin Hillyer, “Tim Scott’s Freedom Fries,” Washington Times, August 6, 2010; David Brody, “Exclusive Tim Scott Interview: No Racism in Tea Party,” CBN Blogs, September 21, 2010.
41. Chafets, “Tim Scott.”
42. Quoted in Tim Alberta, “‘God Made Me Black on Purpose,’” Politico Magazine, March/April 2018.
44. “Tim Scott Remarks at Conservative Political Action Conference,” C-SPAN, March 14, 2013.
45. “Tim Scott Remarks.”
46. “Tim Scott Remarks”; emphasis added.
47. Lester K. Spence, Knocking the Hustle: Against the Neoliberal Turn in Black Politics (Brooklyn: Punctum Books, 2015).
48. Dillard, Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner Now?
49. Reed, “The Puzzle of Black Republicans.”
50. “Scott Plays Up Modest Background, Downplays Race,” Twin Cities Pioneer Press, December 17, 2012, updated November 10, 2015.
51. Quoted in Chafets, “Tim Scott.”
52. Quoted in Alberta, “‘God Made Me Black On Purpose.’”
53. Conor Friedersdorf, “The Senate’s Only Black Republican Opens Up about Being Mistreated by Cops,” Atlantic, July 15, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/07/the-senates-only-black-republican-opens-up-about-being-mistreated-by-police/491435/.
54. In 2017, Scott introduced a bill to create a database of police shootings, named the Walter Scott Notification Act. Ted Barrett, “Tim Scott Chokes Up on Senate floor Remembering Shooting Victims,” CNN, Thursday 25, 2015.
55. James H. Kuklinski, Michael D. Cobb, and Martin Gilens, “Racial Attitudes and the ‘New South,’” Journal of Politics 59, no. 2 (1997): 323–49; Matthew D. Luttig, Christopher M. Federico, and Howard Lavine, “Supporters and Opponents of Donald Trump Respond Differently to Racial Cues: An Experimental Analysis,” Research and Politics 4, no. 4 (2017): 1–8; Brenda Major, Alison Blodorn, and Gregor Major Blascovich, “The Threat of Increasing Diversity: Why Many White Americans Support Trump in the 2016 Presidential Election,” Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 21, no. 6 (2016): 931–40. On Tea Party voters and race more generally, see Christopher S. Parker and Matt Barretto, Change They Can’t Believe In: The Tea Party and Reactionary Politics in America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013).
56. Cameron Easley, “America’s Most and Least Popular Senators,” Morning Consult, January 23, 2018.
57. “Mia Love RNC Speech,” text and video, Politico, August 20, 2012.
58. Diane Jeanty, “Mia Love’s Victory Met with Little Enthusiasm in Her Own Haitian Community,” Huffington Post, November 14, 2014; Mary C Curtis, “Mia Love is Black, Mormon, Republican, and Blowing People’s Minds,” Washington Post, November 12, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/she-the-people/wp/2014/11/12/mia-love-is-black-mormon-republican-and-blowing-peoples-minds/?utm_term=.5d3598ca7a1e.
59. “Mia Love RNC Speech.”
60. Alexis Levinson, “‘Love Bomb’ Showers Utah Candidate with $100K after RNC Speech,” Daily Caller, August 29, 2012.
62. “Representative Mia Love (R-UT) Remarks at CPAC 2015,” C-SPAN, February 26, 2015.
63. “Representative Mia Love Remarks.”
64. “Representative Mia Love Remarks.”
65. “Tea Party Endorses Mia Love for Congress in UT-4,” Tea Party Express, http://www.teapartyexpress.org/8675/tea-party-express-endorses-mia-love-for-congress-in-ut-4; Alyssa Canobbio, “Mia Love Delivers Heartfelt Speech at March for Life,” Washington Free Beacon, January 27, 2017; Jason Linkins, “Mia Love Just Wants Everyone at CPAC to Be Confident,” video and text, Huffington Post, March 16, 2013. In 2018, Love faced no Republican challenger in the primary but lost her seat in the general election by a narrow margin to Democrat Ben McAdams, the mayor of Salt Lake City.
66. Love disavowed the group’s efforts and endorsement. Courtney Tanner, “A Group That Supported Roy Moore Is Now Raising Thousands for Utah Rep. Mia Love to Run for U.S. Senate—and Stop Mitt Romney,” Salt Lake Tribune, January 4, 2015.
67. Adolph L. Reed, “Black Particularity Reconsidered,” Telos 39 (Spring 1979): 72.
68. Reed, “Black Particularity Reconsidered,” 72, 74, 78.
69. Rigueur, Loneliness of the Black Republican, 4.
70. Quoted in Farrington, Black Republicans, 186–87.
71. Quoted in Theodore R. Johnson, “What Nixon Can Teach the GOP about Courting Black Voters,” Politico, August 15, 2015.
72. Reed, “Black Particularity Reconsidered,” 84.
73. Reed, “Black Particularity Reconsidered,” 85.
74. Cedric Johnson, Revolutionaries to Race Leaders: Black Power and the Making of African American Politics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007).
75. Reed, “Black Particularity Reconsidered,” 92.
76. Roderick Ferguson, Aberrations in Black: Toward a Queer of Color Critique (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004).
77. Stuart Hall, “New Ethnicities,” in Black Film/British Cinema (London: Institute of Contemporary Arts, 1988), 433–34.
78. Matthew Dallek, “Donald Trump Is the Ultimate Republican Repudiation of Jack Kemp’s Legacy,” Washington Post, May 12, 2016.
79. Quoted in “The Republicans; Bush Outlines His Goals: ‘I Want to Change the Tone of Washington,’” New York Times, August 4, 2000.
80. President George W. Bush, speech, NAACP annual convention, Washington, D.C., July 20, 2006.
81. Adolph Reed Jr., Stirrings in the Jug: Black Politics in the Post-segregation Era (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999).
82. Toni Morrison, “Comment,” New Yorker, October 5, 1998.
83. Michelle Alexander, “Why Hillary Clinton Doesn’t Deserve the Black Vote,” Nation, February 10, 2016.
84. Alana Semuels, “The End of Welfare as We Know It: America’s Once-Robust Safety Net Is No More,” Atlantic, April 1, 2016.
85. Francis X. Clines, “Clinton Signs Bill Cutting Welfare; States in New Role,” New York Times, August 23, 1996.
86. Christopher Petrella, “On Stone Mountain,” Boston Review, March 30, 2016.
88. Eliana Johnson and Nancy Cook, “The Real Reason Jim DeMint Got the Boot,” Politico, May 2, 2017; Jennifer Steinhauer and Jonathan Weisman, “In the DeMint Era at Heritage, a Shift from Policy to Politics,” New York Times, February 23, 2014.
89. Jeremy W. Peters, “Heritage Foundation Names New President after Turmoil under DeMint,” New York Times, December 19, 2017.
90. Kay Coles James, “I’m an African-American Woman: Here’s My Advice to Conservatives Wooing my Community,” Daily Signal, August 29, 2016.
91. Paul Krugman, “For God’s Sake,” New York Times, April 13, 2007.
92. They were the Office of Management and Budget, the Office of Personnel Management, and the General Services Administration. Edwin Feulner and Kay James, “Kay Coles James Addresses Heritage Staff,” Heritage Foundation, December 19, 2017.
93. Quoted in Rob Bluey, “Kay Coles James to Lead the Heritage Foundation as Next President,” Daily Signal, December 19, 2017.
95. James, “I’m an African-American Woman.”
96. Feulner and James, “Kay Coles James Addresses Heritage Staff.”
97. Breitbart News Daily—Kay Coles James, March 6, 2018, https://soundcloud.com/breitbart/breitbart-news-daily-kay-coles-james-march-6-2018.
4. “A Brown Brother for Donald Trump”
1. Gary Gerstle, American Crucible: Race and Nation in the Twentieth Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002); Rogers Smith, Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997).
2. Quoted in Robert Kuttner, “Steve Bannon, Unrepentant,” American Prospect, August 16, 2017.
3. Nina Burleigh, “The Bannon Canon: Books Favored by the Trump Adviser,” Newsweek, March 23, 2017.
4. “Steve Bannon: 5 Things to Know,” Anti-Defamation League, https://www.adl.org/resources/backgrounders/steve-bannon-five-things-to-know, podcast.
5. “Steve Bannon’s War,” The Daily, New York Times, November 10, 2017, podcast.
6. Quoted in Selena Hill, “Steve Bannon Lectures Black Businesses on ‘Economic Nationalism,’” Black Enterprise, November 13, 2017.
7. Quoted in Adelle Nazarian, “Steve Bannon Headlines Fundraiser for Black, Minority Entrepreneurs,” Breitbart News, December 4, 2017.
8. “Steve Bannon’s War.”
9. Michael Rogin, “The Two Declarations of American Independence,” Representations, no. 55 (July 1996): 13.
10. Philip J. Deloria, Playing Indian (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999); Richard Slotkin, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1973).
11. Frederick Jackson Turner, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1966).
12. James Baldwin, The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction, 1948–1985 (New York: St. Martin’s/Marek, 1985); Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992); Eric Lott, Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).
14. Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, “Dis-Covering the Subject of the ‘Great Constitutional Discussion,’ 1786–1789,” in “Discovering America,” special issue, Journal of American History 79, no. 3 (December 1992): 848.
15. Quoted in David Weigel, “Trump Rallies Thousands in Mississippi with Anger at Media, Iran Deal,” Washington Post, January 2, 2016.
16. Quoted in Joseph E. Lowndes, “From Silent Majority to White-Hot Rage: Observations from Cleveland,” CounterPunch, July 22, 2016.
18. “Trade War with China Is Bad, U.S. Voters Say 3-1, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Voters Support National Guard, But Not the Wall,” Quinnipiac University Poll, April 11, 2018.
19. See, for example, Tatishe Nteta, “United We Stand? African Americans, Self-Interest, and Immigration Reform,” American Politics Research 41, no. 1 (2013): 147–72.
20. “The Federation for American Immigration Reform Creates Black Front Group,” Intelligence Report, Southern Poverty Law Center, October 19, 2006; “Anti-immigrant Front Groups Used in Fight against Immigration Reform,” Anti-Defamation League, May 3, 2013; Michelle Cottle, “The Shady Group behind the African-American Anti-immigration Rally,” Daily Beast, July 12, 2013.
21. “Extremist Files/Federation for American Immigration Reform,” Southern Poverty Law Center, https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/group/federation-american-immigration-reform. FAIR has initiated several formations, including the Black American Leadership Alliance, the African American Leadership Council, Choose Black America, and the Coalition for the Future American Worker, to suggest that Black public opinion favors immigration restriction. Cottle, “The Shady Group.”
22. Claire Jean Kim, Bitter Fruit: The Politics of Black-Korean Conflict in New York City (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2000).
25. Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol. (London: Wordsworth Classics, 1993), 62.
26. Quoted in Benny Luo, “Meet the Trump Fan Who Wants Liberals to Suck His ‘Big Asian Cock,’” Nextshark, February 17, 2017.
27. Abigail Hauslohner, Paul Duggan, Jack Gillum, and Aaron C. Davis, “James Fields Jr.: A Neo-Nazi’s Violent, Rage-Fueled Journey to Charlottesville,” Chicago Tribune, August 18, 2017.
28. Matt Labash, “A Beating in Berkeley,” Weekly Standard, September 11, 2017, https://www.weeklystandard.com/matt-labash/a-beating-in-berkeley.
29. Quoted in Labash, “A Beating in Berkeley.”
30. Brendan Hokowhitu, “Haka: Colonialized Physicality, Body Logic, and Embodied Sovereignty,” in Performing Indigeneity: Global Histories and Contemporary Experiences, ed. Laura R. Graham and H. Glenn Penny (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2014), 273–304.
31. Live feed from Tiny John Toese’s public Facebook page, November 25, 2018. Last viewed December 5, 2018.
32. Matthew N. Lyons, Ctrl-Alt-Delete: The Origins and Ideology of the Alternative Right, Political Research Associates, January 20, 2017.
33. Gavin McInnes, “We Are Not Alt-Right: The Founder Goes on Record,” Proud Boy Magazine, August 21, 2017.
34. Quoted in Hatewatch Staff, “Do You Want Bigots, Gavin? Because This Is How You Get Bigots,” Southern Poverty Law Center, August 10, 2017.
35. Quoted in George Hawley, Making Sense of the Alt-Right (New York: Columbia University Press, 2017), 150.
36. Samuel Francis, Essential Writings on Race, (Oakton, Va.: New Century Books, 2007) 18–19.
37. Quoted in Paul Nehlen, “Diamond and Silk Are Simply the Best: They Are Ready to #DumpRyan,” video on Facebook, August 5, 2016. Oscar Mayer’s parent company, Kraft, had recently announced a plan to close a longtime Madison, Wisconsin–based facility. Brad Reed, “Flashback: Trump Supporters Diamond and Silk Were Paid $7K to Cut Campaign Ad for Wisconsin Neo-Nazi,” Raw Story, April 26, 2018.
38. Brad Reed, “Diamond and Silk Busted for Lying under Oath about Trump Payments as Their House Hearing Goes off the Rails,” Raw Story, April 26, 2018.
5. State Abandonment and Militia Revolt
1. Brian Jennings, Sherron Lumley, and Corinne Boyer, “Anarchy in Eastern Oregon—Don’t Tread on Me,” Bend Source, January 13, 2016.
2. Donnell Alexander, “The Darkness in Burns, Oregon,” Rolling Stone, February 4, 2016.
3. Ryan J. Gallagher, Andrew J. Reagan, Christopher M. Danforth, and Peter Sheridan Dodds, “Divergent Discourse between Protests and Counter-Protests: #BlackLivesMatter and #AllLivesMatter,” PLoS ONE 13, no. 4 (April 18, 2018). See also Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2016).
4. John Vibes, “Black Lives Matter Teams Up with Oregon Occupier Supporters to Fight for Police Accountability,” The Free Thought Project, February 18, 2016, https://thefreethoughtproject.com/black-lives-matter-teams-oregon-occupiers-fight-police-accountability/.
5. Robin D. G. Kelley, “Beyond Black Lives Matter,” Kalfou 2, no. 2 (Fall 2015): 332–33.
6. Quoted in Adam Nagourney, “A Defiant Rancher Savors the Audience That Rallied to His Side,” New York Times, April 23, 2014.
7. Bryan Denson, “Controversial Oregon Ranchers in Court Wednesday, Likely Headed Back to Prison in Arson Case,” The Oregonian/Oregon Live, October 7, 2015.
8. Constitutional Sheriffs and Peace Officers Association quoted in Mark Potok and Ryan Lenz, Line in the Sand, Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report, June 13, 2016.
9. On rural militia activities and white supremacy see Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort (New York: Guilford Press, 2000); Beverly Brown, In Timber Country: Working Peoples’ Stories of Environmental Conflict and Urban Flight (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995); Sara Diamond, Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States (New York: Guilford Press, 1995); Arlene Stein, The Stranger Next Door: The Story of a Small Community’s Battle over Sex, Faith, and Civil Rights (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001); Kenneth Stern, A Force upon the Plain: The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996); Nelle Van Dyke and Sarah A. Soule, “Structural Social Change and the Mobilizing Effect of Threat: Explaining Levels of Patriot and Militia Organizing in the United States,” Social Problems 49, no. 4 (2002): 497–520.
10. Ammon Bundy “Dear Friends,” YouTube, January 1, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M7M0mG6HUyk&t=488s.
11. Spencer Sunshine with Rural Organizing Project and Political Research Associates, Up in Arms: A Guide to Oregon’s Patriot Movement (Somerville, Mass.: Political Research Associates, 2016), http://www.rop.org/wp-content/uploads/Up-in-Arms_Report_PDF-1.pdf.
12. Sarah Cate and Daniel HoSang, “‘The Better Way to Fight Crime’: Why Fiscal Arguments Do Not Restrain the Carceral State,” Theoretical Criminology 22, no. 2 (2018): 169–88.
13. Thena Robinson Mock, Ruth Jeannoel, Rachel Gilmer, Chelsea Fuller, and Marbre Stahly-Butts, “End the War on Black People,” The Movement for Black Lives website, https://policy.m4bl.org/end-war-on-black-people/.
15. Molly Young, “Behind the Harney County Standoff, Decades of Economic Decline,” The Oregonian/Oregon Live, January 14, 2016, updated February 22, 2016.
16. Steven Beda, “Landscapes of Solidarity: Timber Workers and the Making of Place in the Pacific Northwest, 1900–1964” (PhD diss., University of Washington, 2014). See also Erik Loomis, Empire of Timber: Labor Unions and the Pacific Northwest Forests (New York: Cambridge University Press), 2015.
17. Chuck Willer, “A Colony Called Oregon,” Coast Range Associates, 2017, http://coastrange.org/JuneCRALetter_2017forCRAwebsite/JuneCRALetter_2017forCRAwebsite.html. The analysis was done on forest ownership in western Oregon in particular, but it reflects ownership trends throughout the state.
18. Young, “Behind the Harney County Standoff.”
19. Patricia Cohen and Robert Gebeloff, “Public Servants Are Losing Their Foothold in the Middle Class,” New York Times, April 22, 2018.
20. Quoted in Ian Kullgren, “Burns Paiute Tribe: Militants Need to Get off ‘Our Land,’” The Oregonian/Oregon Live, January 6, 2016; Kelly House, “Burns Paiutes to Ammon Bundy: You’re Not the Victim,” The Oregonian/Oregon Live, February 7, 2016, updated February 23, 2016.
21. Burns Paiute Tribe, “Our Mission,” Burns Paiute Natural Resources, https://www.burnspaiute-nsn.gov/index.php/departments/natural-resources.
22. Peter Walker, Sagebrush Collaboration (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2018).
23. Scott Learn, “Rough and Ready Lumber, Josephine County’s Last Sawmill, a Casualty of Southwest Oregon’s Enduring Timber Wars,” The Oregonian/Oregon Live, May 20, 2013.
24. Phillip A. Neel, Hinterland: America’s New Landscape of Class and Conflict (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018).
25. Quoted in Stephanie McNeal, “Citizens Take Law into Own Hands after Cash-Strapped Oregon County Guts Sheriff’s Office,” Fox News, December 28, 2013.
26. Associated Press, “Laid-off Deputy Trains Armed Group How to Respond to Crime in Josephine County after Budget Cuts,” The Oregonian/Oregon Live, February 14, 2013.
27. Michelle Brence, “Voters Reject 2 Public Safety Measures: Oregon Election Roundup,” The Oregonian/Oregon Live, May 20, 2015.
28. Quoted in Clara Jeffrey and Monika Bauerlein, “The Job Killers,” Mother Jones, November/December 2011, https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/10/republicans-job-creation-kill/.
29. James Pogues, “The Oath Keepers Are Ready for War with the Federal Government,” Vice, September 14, 2015.
30. Walter Johnson, “What Do We Mean When We Say, ‘Structural Racism’? A Walk down West Florissant Avenue, Ferguson, Missouri,” Kalfou 3, no. 1 (2016): 36–62; “Platform” of the Movement for Black Lives, https://policy.m4bl.org/platform/. See also Taylor, From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation. For a more sober account of the challenges facing organizers in Ferguson, see Neel, Hinterland, chapter 5.
31. Michael Paul Rogin, “The Countersubversive Tradition in American Politics,” Berkeley Journal of Sociology 31 (1986): 1–33.
32. Aaron Morrison, “Oregon Standoff Leader: ‘There Is Probably Some Similarities’ to Black Lives Matter Movement,” International Business Times, January 4, 2016, http://www.ibtimes.com/oregon-standoff-leader-there-probably-some-similarities-black-lives-matter-movement-2248094.
33. Eileen Sullivan and Julie Turkewitz, “Trump Pardons Oregon Ranchers Whose Case Inspired Wildlife Refuge Takeover,” New York Times, July 10, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/10/us/politics/trump-pardon-hammond-oregon.html.
34. Raúl M. Grijalva, “With Hammond Pardons, Did Donald Trump Write a Blank Check to Anti-government Extremists?” USA Today, July 18, 2018.
1. The video was posted on Patriot Prayer’s Facebook page on June 3, 2018, https://www.facebook.com/100013660111371/videos/437348323397168/?hc_ref=ARSA5lk_cmaVqJOMTR-EkoyI_sQxOGyd6aV8qpuLoi_1SN1tMt4m7_ptN-mhSWeZ-QA. The speaker’s comments begin at the 7:55 mark.
2. Jason Wilson, “Far-Right Group Brawls with Anti-fascist Protesters in Portland Streets,” June 4, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jun/04/patriot-prayer-proud-boys-antifa-fights-brawls-portland.
3. Shane Burley, Fascism Today: What It Is and How to End It (Chico, Calif.: AK Press, 2017).
4. Wilson, “Far-Right Group Brawls.”
5. “‘Pinochet Did No Wrong’: Who Is Pinochet?” KOIN 6, August 4, 2018, https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/-pinochet-did-no-wrong-who-is-pinochet-/1346777062.
6. “The Legend of Tiny Toese: American Samoan Patriot,” video from August 13, 2017, Patriot Prayer rally in Seattle, Washington; Arlie Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016).
8. See Alexander Reid Ross, Against the Fascist Creep (Chico, Calif.: AK Press, 2017).
9. “Steve Bannon Remarks to Minority Entrepreneur Conference,” C-SPAN, December 5, 2017, https://www.c-span.org/video/?438151-1/steve-bannon-addresses-minority-entrepreneurs-conference.
10. Danielle Kurtzleben, “Here’s How Many Bernie Sanders Supporters Ultimately Voted for Trump,” NPR, August 24, 2017.
11. The comments are taken from “We Are Breitbart,” promotional video published by Breitbart News, YouTube, March 4, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PvDpivo68jU. A list of the 2016 meetups can be found at http://www.breitbart.com/meetups/.
12. Victoria Hattam and Joseph Lowndes, “The Ground beneath Our Feet: Language, Culture and Political Change,” in Formative Acts: American Politics in the Making, ed. Steven Skowronek and Matthew Glassman (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007), 204.
13. Aziz Rana, “Goodbye, Cold War,” n+1, no. 30 (Winter 2018), https://nplusonemag.com/issue-30/politics/goodbye-cold-war/.
14. Donald L. Warren, The Radical Center: Middle Americans and the Politics of Alienation (South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1976), xx.
15. Thomas Byrne Edsall and Mary Edsall, Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics (New York: Norton, 1992).
16. Ruy Teixeira and Joel Rogers, America’s Forgotten Majority: Why the White Working Class Still Matters (New York: Basic Books, 2001).
17. Jess Manuel Krogstad, 2016 Electorate Will Be the Most Diverse in U.S. History, Pew Research Center, February 3, 2016.
18. Joan C. Williams, “What So Many People Don’t Get about the U.S. Working Class,” Harvard Business Review, November 10, 2016.
19. Arlie Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016).
20. Had Hochschild wanted to grasp what produced the politics of her subjects she might have reflected on the Republican gubernatorial campaign of Klansman David Duke in 1991, or further back Goldwater’s racially charged victory in 1964—the first time ever that the state went Republican for a presidential candidate, or even further back the role that legendary Plaquemines Parish political boss Leander Perez played in the Dixiecrat Revolt of 1948—all of which shape the kinds of contemporary political identifications she seeks to understand. For that matter, the political orientation of these Louisiana Tea Partiers may also be rooted in alternate histories that disobey the narrative of class and race resentment, such as the 1887 biracial strike by cane cutters in Thibodaux that ended in the massacre of hundreds by the state militia, or Huey Long’s immensely popular populist attacks on elites in the 1930s. On Perez and Louisiana’s role in the Dixiecrat Revolt of 1948 see Glenn Jeansonne, Leander Perez: Boss of the Delta (Lexington: University of Mississippi Press, 2006). On the Goldwater campaign of 1964 see Joseph Lowndes, From the New Deal to the New Right: Race and the Southern Origins of Modern Conservatism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2008), chapters 2 and 3. On the sugar strike of 1897 see Alex Gourevitch, From Slavery to the Cooperative Commonwealth: Labor and Republican Liberty in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
21. William Graham Sumner, Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores and Morals (New York: Ginn, 1906). Another articulation of this thesis can be found in social psychology; see John Turner and Penny Oakes, “The Significance of the Social Identity Concept for Social Psychology with Reference to Individualism, Interactionism and Social Influence,” British Journal of Social Psychology 25, no. 3 (1986): 237–52.
22. Amy Chua, Political Tribes: Group Instinct and the Fate of Nations (New York: Penguin, 2018), 4.
23. Thomas B. Edsall, “Liberals Need to Take Their Fingers Out of Their Ears,” New York Times, December 7, 2017; David Brooks, “The Retreat to Tribalism,” New York Times, January 1, 2018.
24. Ed Mazza, “Vanilla ISIS & Y’All Qaeda: Oregon Gunmen Mocked on Social Media,” Huffington Post, January, 4, 2016.
25. Chua, Political Tribes, 208, 209. Chua’s remedies seem in many ways to be a rehashing of the “Americans All” movement of the 1930s, which sought national redemption through a respect for cultural pluralism. See, for example, Diana Selig, Americans All: The Cultural Gifts Movement (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011). These efforts placed much greater emphasis on building the national unity necessary for wartime mobilizations and militarism, but they left actual structures of racial domination (such as Jim Crow) in place.
26. Phil A. Neel, Hinterland: America’s New Landscape of Class and Conflict (London: Reaktion Books, 2018).
27. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., “MLK Public Statement on the Poor People’s Campaign,” December 4, 1967, 1, 3, http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/document/mlk-public-statement-poor-peoples-campaign.
28. Thanks to Malori Musselman for the political assertion, in response to a presentation of this project, that “we are all parasites.”
29. King, “MLK Public Statement,” 4.
30. Sylvia Laurent, King and the Other America: The Poor People’s Campaign and the Quest for Economic Equality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2018); William J. Barber II and Jonathan Wilson-Hartgrove, The Third Reconstruction: How a Moral Movement Is Overcoming the Politics of Division and Fear (Boston: Beacon Press, 2016); Gordon K. Mantler, Power to the Poor: Black-Brown Coalition and the Fight for Economic Justice, 1960–1974 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015).
31. George Lipsitz, “‘What Kind of Ally Are You?’ Intersectional Activism and Social Analysis,” June 2018, (unpublished manuscript in authors’ possession).
32. Audre Lorde, “Learning from the 60s,” in Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches by Audre Lorde (Berkeley: Crossing Press, 2007), 134–44.
33. Bernice Johnson Reagon, “Coalition Politics: Turning the Century,” in Homegirls: A Black Feminist Anthology, ed. Barbara Smith (New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1983), 359.
34. Lorde, “Learning from the 60s,” 136.
35. Lipsitz, “‘What Kind of Ally Are You?’”
36. Lorde, “Learning from the 60s,” 137.
37. Fred Moten, in “The General Antagonism: An Interview with Stevphen Shukaitis,” in The Undercommons: Fugitive Planning and Black Study, ed. Stefano Harney and Fred Moten (Wivenhoe, UK: Minor Compositions, 2013), 140–41.
38. Arlene Stein, The Stranger Next Door (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001).
40. A small sampling of these groups includes the Virginia Organizing Project, Kentuckians for the Commonwealth, the Highlander Center, Southerners on New Ground, the Letcher Governance Project, Down Home North Carolina, Idaho Community Action Network, Southern Echo, Native Action, and the Southwest Organizing Project.