1. In Blood Sugar, I critique the ways in which metabolic syndrome contributes to the naturalization of race and racial health inequality under conditions of color-blind scientific racism. Anthony Ryan Hatch, Blood Sugar: Racial Pharmacology and Food Justice in Black America (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2016).
2. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (London: Vintage Books, 1977).
1. As of September 2015, according to the federal Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), there were 427,910 children in foster care across the United States. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau, The AFCARS Report, no. 23 (June 2016), https://www.acf.hhs.gov.
2. Erving Goffman, Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates (New York: Anchor Books, 1961); Tom Burns, Erving Goffman (London: Routledge, 1991).
3. Goffman, 6.
4. Goffman, 4–5.
5. Burns, Erving Goffman.
6. Goffman, Asylums, 12.
7. Goffman, 7.
8. Burns, Erving Goffman, 157.
9. Clifford L. Broman, “Race Differences in the Receipt of Mental Health Services among Young Adults,” Psychological Services 9, no. 1 (2012): 38–48; Margarita Alegría, Pinka Chatterji, Kenneth Wells, Zhun Cao, Chih-nan Chen, David Takeuchi, James Jackson, and Xiao-Li Meng, “Disparity in Depression Treatment among Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations in the United States,” Psychiatric Services 59, no. 11 (2008): 1264–72.
10. Ryne Paulose‐Ram, Marc A. Safran, Bruce S. Jonas, Qiuping Gu, and Denise Orwig, “Trends in Psychotropic Medication Use among US Adults,” Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 16, no. 5 (2007): 560–70; Qiuping Gu, Charles F. Dillon, and Vicki L. Burt, Prescription Drug Use Continues to Increase: U.S. Prescription Drug Data for 2007–2008, NCHS Data Brief, no. 42 (Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, 2010); Laura A. Pratt, Debra J. Brody, and Qiuping Gu, Antidepressant Use in Persons Aged 12 and Over: United States, 2005–2008 (Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, 2011); Bruce S. Jonas, Qiuping Gu, and Juan R. Albertorio-Diaz, Psychotropic Medication Use among Adolescents: United States, 2005–2010, NCHS Data Brief, no. 135 (Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, 2013).
11. Thomas J. Moore and Donald R. Mattison, “Adult Utilization of Psychiatric Drugs and Differences by Sex, Age, and Race,” JAMA Internal Medicine 177, no. 2 (2017): 274–75. The authors note that their estimate of long-term use is based on self-reported data limited to a single survey year.
12. Sherry A. Glied and Richard G. Frank, “Better but Not Best: Recent Trends in the Well-Being of the Mentally Ill,” Health Affairs 28, no. 3 (2009): 637–48; Tami L. Mark, Katharine R. Levit, and Jeffrey A. Buck, “Datapoints: Psychotropic Drug Prescriptions by Medical Specialty,” Psychiatric Services 60, no. 9 (2009): 1167; Ramin Mojtabai and Mark Olfson, “National Trends in Long-Term Use of Antidepressant Medications: Results from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 75, no. 2 (2014): 169–77.
13. David Healy, Andrew Herxheimer, and David B. Menkes, “Antidepressants and Violence: Problems at the Interface of Medicine and Law,” PLOS Medicine 3, no. 9 (2006): 1478–87; Thomas J. Moore, Joseph Glenmullen, and Curt D. Furberg, “Prescription Drugs Associated with Reports of Violence towards Others,” PLOS One 5, no. 12 (2010): e15337; Peter R. Breggin, Medication Madness: A Psychiatrist Exposes the Dangers of Mood-Altering Medications (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2008); Peter R. Breggin, “Antidepressant-Induced Suicide, Violence, and Mania: Risks for Military Personnel,” Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry 12, no. 2 (2010): 111–21.
14. Donald W. Light, “Bearing the Risks of Prescription Drugs,” in The Risks of Prescription Drugs, ed. Donald W. Light (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010), 1–39; David Healy, Pharmageddon (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012); Joseph Dumit, Drugs for Life: How Pharmaceutical Companies Define Our Health (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2012).
15. Hatch, Blood Sugar; Jonathan Kahn, Race in a Bottle: The Story of BiDil and Racialized Medicine in a Post-genomic Age (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013); Anne Pollock, Medicating Race: Heart Disease and Durable Preoccupations with Difference (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2012); Jackie Orr, Panic Diaries: A Genealogy of Panic Disorder (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2006); Jonathan Metzl, Prozac on the Couch: Prescribing Gender in the Era of Wonder Drugs (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2003).
16. Lauren E. Glaze, Correctional Population in the United States, 2010, BJS Bulletin, NCJ 236319 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011).
17. E. Ann Carson, Prisoners in 2016, BJS Bulletin, NCJ 251149 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2018).
18. Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007).
19. Michelle Brown, The Culture of Punishment: Prison, Society, and Spectacle (New York: New York University Press, 2009); Michael Welch, Escape to Prison: Penal Tourism and the Pull of Punishment (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015); Dawn K. Cecil, Prison Life in Popular Culture: From the Big House to “Orange Is the New Black” (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2015).
20. Douglass Shenson, Nancy Dubler, and David Michaels, “Jails and Prisons: The New Asylums?,” American Journal of Public Health 80, no. 6 (1990): 655–56; E. Fuller Torrey, “Jails and Prisons: America’s New Mental Hospitals,” American Journal of Public Health 85, no. 12 (1995): 1611–13.
21. E. Fuller Torrey, Aaron D. Kennard, Don Eslinger, Richard Lamb, and James Pavle, More Mentally Ill Persons Are in Jails and Prisons Than Hospitals: A Survey of the States (Arlington, Va.: Treatment Advocacy Center, 2010).
22. Human Rights Watch, Ill-Equipped: U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2003).
23. Allen J. Beck and Laura M. Maruschak, Mental Health Treatment in State Prisons, 2000, BJS Special Report, NCJ 188215 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2001).
24. Andrew P. Wilper, Steffie Woolhandler, J. Wesley Boyd, Karen E. Lasser, Danny McCormick, David H. Bor, and David U. Himmelstein, “The Health and Health Care of U.S. Prisoners: Results of a Nationwide Survey,” American Journal of Public Health 99, no. 4 (2009): 666–72.
26. Harley Lappin, testimony in Human Rights at Home: Mental Illness in U.S. Prisons and Jails, Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, 111th Cong., 1st Sess. (September 15, 2009), https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys.
27. Torrey et al., More Mentally Ill Persons Are in Jails.
28. A. J. Gottschlich and G. Cetnar, “Drug Bills at Jail Top Food Costs,” Springfield (Ohio) News Sun, August 20, 2002.
29. Tony Fabelo, “Technocorrections”: The Promises, the Uncertain Threats, Research in Brief, NCJ 181411 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2000), https://www.ncjrs.gov.
30. Fabelo, 2, emphasis added.
31. Michael Massoglia, “Incarceration as Exposure: The Prison, Infectious Disease, and Other Stress-Related Illnesses,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 49, no. 1 (2008): 56–71.
32. Lorna Rhodes, Total Confinement: Madness and Reason in the Maximum Security Prison (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004).
33. Jessica Mitford, Kind and Usual Punishment: The Prison Business (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1973).
34. For work in the 1970s, see Roy G. Spece, “Conditioning and Other Technologies Used to ‘Treat?’ ‘Rehabilitate?’ ‘Demolish?’ Prisoners and Mental Patients,” Southern California Law Review 45, no. 2 (1972): 616–84; Michael H. Shapiro, “Legislating the Control of Behavior Control: Autonomy and the Coercive Use of Organic Therapies,” Southern California Law Review 47, no. 2 (1974): 237–356; Richard Singer, “Consent of the Unfree: Medical Experimentation and Behavior Modification in the Closed Institution, Part II,” Law and Human Behavior 1, no. 2 (1977): 1–43. For somewhat more recent legal interpretations, see Jami Floyd, “The Administration of Psychotropic Drugs to Prisoners: State of the Law and Beyond,” California Law Review 78 (1990): 1243–85; Kathleen Auerhahn and Elizabeth Dermody Leonard, “Docile Bodies? Chemical Restraints and the Female Inmate,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 90, no. 2 (2000): 599–634.
35. Douglas Del Paggio, “Psychotropic Medication Abuse by Inmates in Correctional Facilities,” Mental Health Clinician 1, no. 8 (2012): 187–88; Joseph M. Pierre, Igor Shnayder, Donna A. Wirshing, and William C. Wirshing, “Intranasal Quetiapine Abuse,” American Journal of Psychiatry 161, no. 9 (2004): 1718.
36. Ted Morgan, “Waiting for Justice—8th Floor: Homicides; 9th Floor: Addicts; 10th Floor: Suicidal: Entombed,” New York Times, February 17, 1974.
37. Letter in Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, 96th Cong., 2nd Sess., United States Bureau of Prisons Staff Study: Institutional Drug Abuse Treatment Programs and Utilization of Prescription Drugs at Five Institutions, SCNAC-96-2-13 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1980), 89, emphasis added.
38. Lisa Guenther, Solitary Confinement: Social Death and Its Afterlives (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013); Rhodes, Total Confinement.
39. It has been well documented that black men have disproportionately fueled the expanding American prison population. In fact, as of December 13, 2013, nearly 3 percent of black men in the United States were incarcerated, compared to only 0.5 percent of white men. E. Ann Carson, Prisoners in 2013, BJS Bulletin, NCJ 247282 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2014). Given that African Americans make up only approximately 13 percent of the U.S. population, this disparity is breathtaking. However, what is often overlooked is that the fastest-rising demographic in prison is women. In 1980, there were 13,258 women in prison; by 2012, the number had risen to 113,605, almost a tenfold increase. As it is with men of color, women of color are disproportionately represented in American prisons. For details on these data, see E. Ann Carson and Daniela Golinelli, Prisoners in 2012: Trends in Admissions and Releases, 1991–2012, BJS Bulletin, NCJ 243920 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2013).
40. Patricia Williams, The Alchemy of Race and Rights: Diary of a Law Professor (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991); Patricia Hill Collins, Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism (New York: Routledge, 2005).
41. Intersectional frameworks, through which race, gender, sexuality, social class, disability, and nationality are viewed as intersecting axes of domination and resistance, shape these arguments by highlighting the ways in which systems of power draw on each other for meaning and operate simultaneously to maintain inequality and open up fissures for resistance. See Angela Y. Davis and Cassandra Shaylor, “Race, Gender, and the Prison Industrial Complex: California and Beyond,” Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 2, no. 1 (2001): 1–25; Julia Sudbury, ed., Global Lockdown: Race, Gender, and the Prison–Industrial Complex (New York: Routledge, 2013); Jodie M. Lawston and Erica R. Meiners, “Ending Our Expertise: Feminists, Scholarship, and Prison Abolition,” Feminist Formations 26, no. 2 (2014): 1–25.
42. Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: New Press, 2010); Angela Y. Davis, Are Prisons Obsolete? (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2003).
43. Elizabeth Ettore and Elianna Riska, Gendered Moods: Psychotropics and Society (London: Routledge, 1995).
44. Ira Sommers and Deborah R. Baskin, “The Prescription of Psychiatric Medications in Prison: Psychiatric versus Labeling Perspectives,” Justice Quarterly 7, no. 4 (1990): 739–55; Clarice Feinman, Women in the Criminal Justice System (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1994); Barbara H. Zaitzow, “Psychotropic Control of Women Prisoners: The Perpetuation of Abuse of Imprisoned Women,” Justice Policy Journal 7, no. 2 (2010): 1–37; Jennifer Kilty, “Governance through Psychiatrization: Seroquel and the New Prison Order,” Radical Psychology 2, no. 7 (2008): 1–24.
45. Hilary Allen, “Rendering Them Harmless: The Professional Portrayal of Women Charged with Serious Violent Crimes,” in Criminology at the Crossroads: Feminist Readings in Crime and Justice, ed. Kathleen Daly and Lisa Maher (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 54–68; Karlene Faith, Unruly Women: The Politics of Confinement and Resistance (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2011).
46. Charles H. Jones and Stephen M. Latimer, “Liles v. Ward: A Case Study in the Abuse of Psychotropic Drugs in Prison,” New England Journal of Prison Law 8 (1982): 1–38.
47. Auerhahn and Leonard, “Docile Bodies?,” 605.
48. Jones and Latimer, “Liles v. Ward,” 7.
49. Jacques Baillargeon and Salvador A. Contreras, “Antipsychotic Prescribing Patterns in the Texas Prison System,” Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 29, no. 1 (2001): 48–53; Jacques Baillargeon, Sandra A. Black, Salvador A. Contreras, James Grady, and John Pulvino, “Anti-depressant Prescribing Patterns for Prison Inmates with Depressive Disorders,” Journal of Affective Disorders 63, no. 1 (2001): 225–31.
50. Sullivan v. Flannigan and Parwatikar, 8 F.3d 591 (7th Cir. 1993).
51. Susan Leigh Star, “This Is Not a Boundary Object: Reflections on the Origin of a Concept,” Science, Technology, & Human Values 35, no. 5 (2010): 601–17; Adriana Petryna, Life Exposed: Biological Citizens after Chernobyl (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2013).
52. Estelle v. Gamble, 429 U.S. 97 (1976); William J. Rold, “Thirty Years after Estelle v. Gamble: A Legal Retrospective,” Journal of Correctional Health Care 14, no. 1 (2008): 11–20.
55. Floyd, “Administration of Psychotropic Drugs.”
56. Lee Black, “Forced Medication of Prison Inmates,” Virtual Mentor 10, no. 2 (2008): 106.
57. Washington v. Harper, 494 U. S. 219 (1990).
58. Sheldon Gelman, “The Biological Alteration Cases,” William and Mary Law Review 36, no. 4 (1994): 1204.
59. Dennis Cichon, “The Right to Just Say No: A History and Analysis of the Right to Refuse Antipsychotic Drugs,” Los Angeles Law Review 53 (1992): 283–426; Bruce J. Winick, “Psychotropic Medication and Competence to Stand Trial,” Law & Social Inquiry 2, no. 3 (1977): 769–816; Patricia E. Sindel, “Fourteenth Amendment: The Right to Refuse Antipsychotic Drugs Masked by Prison Bars,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 81, no. 4 (1991): 952–80.
60. Riggins v. Nevada, 504 U.S. 127 (1992).
61. Sell v. United States, 539 U.S. 166 (2003).
62. Felce v. Fielder, 974 F.2d 1481 (1992).
63. Caitlin Steinke, “How the Medicate-to-Execute Scheme Undermines Individual Liberty, Offends Societal Norms, and Violates the Constitution,” Hofstra Law Student Works, Paper 8 (2013); Howard V. Zonana, “Competency to Be Executed and Forced Medication: Singleton v. Norris,” Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 31 (2003): 372–76.
64. Nelson v. Heyne, 491 F.2d 353 (7th Cir. 1974).
65. Nelson, 491 F.2d at 455.
66. Nelson, 491 F.2d at 456.
67. Edward M. Opton Jr., “Psychiatric Violence against Prisoners: When Therapy Is Punishment,” Mississippi Law Journal 45, no. 3 (1974): 608.
68. Opton, 608.
69. Opton, 622.
70. See, for example, Auerhahn and Leonard, “Docile Bodies?”
71. Opton, “Psychiatric Violence against Prisoners,” 639.
72. Opton, 640.
73. Opton, 640.
74. Singer, “Consent of the Unfree,” 40.
75. First, I have collected federal, state, and local prison and jail performance audits of prison pharmacies and correctional health services. Second, I have collected publicly available government research reports and official policy statements that pertain to the mental health services currently provided in prison contexts. Third, I have collected original legal rulings and secondary scholarly interpretations of those rulings as they pertain to issues of state power, citizenship, and psychotropics in prison contexts. Finally, I have combed available journalistic accounts of the dynamics of psychotropic distribution in custodial institutions. Taken together, these primary materials enable me to provide historically nuanced interpretations of the meanings of psychotropics.
76. Patricia Williams, “Spirit-Murdering the Messenger: The Discourse of Fingerpointing as the Law’s Response to Racism,” University of Miami Law Review 42 (1987): 151.
77. Robin E. Sheriff, “Exposing Silence as Cultural Censorship: A Brazilian Case,” American Anthropologist 102, no. 1 (2000): 114–32; Christina A. Sue, “Hegemony and Silence: Confronting State-Sponsored Silences in the Field,” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 44, no. 1 (2015): 113–40; Robin Patric Clair, Organizing Silence: A World of Possibilities (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998); Himika Bhattacharya, “Performing Silence: Gender, Violence, and Resistance in Women’s Narratives from Lahaul, India,” Qualitative Inquiry 15, no. 2 (2009): 359–71; Stefan Hirschauer, “Putting Things into Words: Ethnographic Description and the Silence of the Social,” Human Studies 29, no. 4 (2007): 413–41.
78. Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History (Boston: Beacon Press, 1995).
79. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 50th anniversary ed. (New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018), 60.
80. James Scott, Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999); Aimé Césaire, Discourse on Colonialism, trans. Joan Pinkham (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000).
81. Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, vol. 1, An Introduction, trans. R. Hurley (New York: Vintage Books, 1978); Michel Foucault, “Society Must Be Defended”: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–1976, ed. Mauro Bertani and Alessandro Fontana, trans. David Macey (New York: Picador, 2003).
82. Achille Mbembe, “Necropolitics,” Public Culture 15, no. 1 (2003): 14.
83. Giorgio Agamben, State of Exception, trans. Kevin Attell (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).
84. Mbembe, “Necropolitics,” 40.
1. Climbing the Walls
1. Robert Proctor, Agnotology: The Making and Unmaking of Ignorance (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008); Kristian H. Nielsen and Mads P. Sørensen, “How to Take Non-knowledge Seriously, or ‘The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance,’” Public Understanding of Science 26, no. 3 (2017): 385–92.
2. David E. Lilienfeld, “The First Pharmacoepidemiologic Investigations: National Drug Safety Policy in the United States, 1901–1902,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51, no. 2 (2008): 188–98; Brian L. Strom, Stephen E. Kimmel, and Sean Hennessy, eds., Textbook of Pharmacoepidemiology (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013).
3. Adriana Petryna, When Experiments Travel: Clinical Trials and the Global Search for Human Subjects (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2009).
6. “Questions and Answers on FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System.”
8. These include but are not limited to the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (1990–2001), the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002–current), the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1959–current), and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (1996–current).
9. Geraldine Pierre, Roland J. Thorpe Jr., Gniesha Y. Dinwiddie, and Darrell J. Gaskin, “Are There Racial Disparities in Psychotropic Drug Use and Expenditures in a Nationally Representative Sample of Men in the United States? Evidence from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey,” American Journal of Men’s Health 8, no. 1 (2014): 82–90; Broman, “Race Differences in the Receipt of Mental Health Services.”
10. Paulose‐Ram et al., “Trends in Psychotropic Medication Use.”
11. Gail L. Daumit, Rosa M. Crum, Eliseo Guallar, Neil R. Powe, Annelle B. Primm, Donald M. Steinwachs, and Daniel E. Ford, “Outpatient Prescriptions for Atypical Antipsychotics for African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites in the United States,” Archives of General Psychiatry 60, no. 2 (2003): 121–28.
12. Philip S. Wang, Joyce C. West, Terri Tanielian, and Harold Alan Pincus, “Recent Patterns and Predictors of Antipsychotic Medication Regimens Used to Treat Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders,” Schizophrenia Bulletin 26, no. 2 (2000): 451–57.
13. Tracy L. Skaer, David A. Sclar, Linda M. Robison, and Richard S. Galin, “Trends in the Rate of Depressive Illness and Use of Antidepressant Pharmacotherapy by Ethnicity/Race: An Assessment of Office-Based Visits in the United States, 1992–1997,” Clinical Therapeutics 22, no. 12 (2000): 1575–89; Alexander S. Young, Ruth Klap, Cathy D. Sherbourne, and Kenneth B. Wells, “The Quality of Care for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in the United States,” Archives of General Psychiatry 58, no. 1 (2001): 55–61; Amy M. Kilbourne and Harold Alan Pincus, “Patterns of Psychotropic Medication Use by Race among Veterans with Bipolar Disorder,” Psychiatric Services 57, no. 1 (2006): 123–26.
14. Baillargeon and Contreras, “Antipsychotic Prescribing Patterns”; Baillargeon et al., “Anti-depressant Prescribing Patterns.”
15. Baillargeon et al., “Anti-depressant Prescribing Patterns.”
16. Elise V. Griffiths, Jon Willis, and M. Joy Spark, “A Systematic Review of Psychotropic Drug Prescribing for Prisoners,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 46, no. 5 (2012): 407–21.
17. Emil R. Pinta and Robert E. Taylor, “Quetiapine Addiction?,” American Journal of Psychiatry 164, no. 1 (2007): 174; Rusty Reeves, Herbert H. Kaldany, Jordan Lieberman, and Rajiv Vyas, “Creation of a Metabolic Monitoring Program for Second-Generation (Atypical) Antipsychotics,” Journal of Correctional Health Care 15 (2009): 292–301. In my own work, I have analyzed the ways in which metabolic syndrome has been used to capture the negative side effects of second-generation, atypical antipsychotics—high blood sugar, high cholesterol, and excessive weight gain. See Hatch, Blood Sugar.
19. In 1979, 11,397 inmates were successfully interviewed in 215 prisons; in 1986, 13,711 inmates were interviewed in 275 prisons; and in 1991, 13,986 inmates were interviewed in 272 prisons.
20. Paula M. Ditton, Mental Health and Treatment of Inmates and Probationers, BJS Special Report, NCJ 174463 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1999), 2, http://www.bjs.gov.
21. Doris J. James and Lauren E. Glaze, Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates, BJS Special Report, NCJ 213600 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2006), http://www.bjs.gov.
22. Detailed symptom data suggest that between 2.3 percent and 3.9 percent of the prisoners surveyed were diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, with symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech and behavior. Between 13.1 percent and 18.6 percent suffered from major depression, with symptoms including appetite or weight change, changes in sleep, decreased energy, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, and difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions; of this group, 15 percent ultimately committed suicide. Between 2.1 percent and 4.3 percent were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, with symptoms including rapidly alternating moods such as sadness, irritability, and euphoria. Suicide rates for those with this disorder ranged between 10 percent and 15 percent. Between 22 percent and 30 percent of the prisoners surveyed were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and general anxiety disorder.
23. James and Glaze, Mental Health Problems, 3.
24. Wilper et al., “The Health and Health Care of U.S. Prisoners.”
25. Ditton, Mental Health and Treatment.
26. Jennifer Bronson and Marcus Berzofsky, Indicators of Mental Health Problems Reported by Prisoners and Jail Inmates, 2011–12, BJS Special Report, NCJ 250612 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2017).
27. Beck and Maruschak, Mental Health Treatment in State Prisons, 1. The census included prisons and penitentiaries; boot camps; prison farms; reception, diagnostic, and classification centers; road campuses; forestry and conservation camps; youthful offender facilities (except in California); vocational training facilities; prison hospitals; drug and alcohol treatment facilities; and state-operated local detention facilities (in Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont).
29. Marguerite J. Ro, Carolina Casares, Henrie M. Treadwell, and Kisha Braithwaite, “Access to Mental Health Care and Substance Abuse Treatment for Men of Color in the U.S.: Findings from the National Healthcare Disparities Report,” Challenge 12, no. 2 (2006): 65–74.
30. See, for example, Zaitzow, “Psychotropic Control of Women Prisoners.”