1. Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1999).
2. Donna Jeanne Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge, 1991); Karen Barad, “Getting Real: Technoscientific Practices and the Materialization of Reality,” Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 10, no. 2 (1998): 87–128; see also Jasbir K. Puar, “‘I Would Rather Be a Cyborg than a Goddess’: Becoming-Intersectional in Assemblage Theory,” PhiloSOPHIA 2, no. 1 (2012): 49–66.
3. Anyway, you might prefer it to cyborg.
4. I use third university and third world university interchangeably as shorthand for a third worlding university, that is, a decolonizing university. Readers might find third world university easier to say aloud. The fourth world university refers to something else entirely outside of this taxonomy of universities. These terms are not meant to be categorical. Universities are permeable and coinciding.
5. Ngũgĩ wa Thiongʼo, Dreams in a Time of War: A Childhood Memoir (New York: Pantheon Books, 2010), 166.
6. Ngũgĩ wa Thiongʼo, In the House of the Interpreter: A Memoir (New York: Pantheon Books, 2012), 10.
7. Arthur MacArthur, cited in Renato Constantino, “The Miseducation of the Filipino,” Weekly Graphic, June 8, 1966, 3. Internet resource transcribed by Bert M. Drona, The Filipino Mind, http://thefilipinomind.blogspot.com/.
8. Wa Thiongʼo, In the House of the Interpreter, 10.
9. Avery Gordon, Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008), 18; Kara Keeling, The Witch’s Flight: The Cinematic, the Black Femme, and the Image of Common Sense, Perverse Modernities (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2007), 137.
10. Scott Richard Lyons, X-Marks: Native Signatures of Assent, Indigenous Americas (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), 23.
11. Ibid., 31.
12. K. Tsianina Lomawaima and Teresa McCarty, “To Remain an Indian”: Lessons in Democracy from a Century of Native American Education, Multicultural Education (New York: Teachers College Press, 2006), 13.
13. Ibid., 111. Hopification is Hartman H. Lomawaima’s term. See Lomawaima, “Hopification: A Strategy for Cultural Preservation,” Columbian Consequences 1 (1989): 93–99.
14. Kale Fajardo, “Filipino Goonies in Astoria, Oregon: Engaging Settler Colonialisms in Queer/Asian Diaspora Studies and Transnational Filipino/a Studies,” invited talk, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of California, San Diego, February 18, 2015; Greg Sarris, Keeping Slug Woman Alive: A Holistic Approach to American Indian Texts (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); Gerald Robert Vizenor, Manifest Manners: Postindian Warriors of Survivance (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1994); Craig S. Womack, Red on Red: Native American Literary Separatism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999); Troy Richardson, “Navigating the Problem of Inclusion as Enclosure in Native Culture–Based Education: Theorizing Shadow Curriculum,” Curriculum Inquiry 41, no. 3 (2011): 332–49; Aries River Yumul, “Sovereignty’s Shadow: How Queer Native American Co-constitutive Relations in Literature Rethink Space, Land, Healing, and Resistance,” honors thesis, University of California, San Diego, 2012.
15. Craig S. Womack, Drowning in Fire, Sun Tracks 48 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2001), 19.
16. Greg Sarris, Watermelon Nights: A Novel, 1st ed. (New York: Hyperion, 1998), 136.
17. Robin D. G. Kelley, Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination (Boston: Beacon Press, 2002). See also Shelley Streeby, “Speculative Archives: Histories of the Future of Education,” Pacific Coast Philology 49, no. 1 (2014): 25–40, for a great analysis of Black and transborder utopian projects by Frederic Jameson, Kim Stanley Robinson, Octavia Butler, and Alex Rivera. Drawing from Kim Stanley Robinson’s valuing on the very audacity to dream utopia, Streeby supplies an important refusal of heavy-handed critiques of utopia, such as my own in “The Postcolonial Ghetto: Seeing Her Shape and His Hand,” Berkeley Review of Education 1, no. 1 (2010): 5–34.
18. la paperson, “Postcolonial Ghetto.”
19. Eve Tuck, “Suspending Damage: A Letter to Communities,” Harvard Educational Review 79, no. 3 (2009): 417, emphasis original.
20. Colonialist-by-product. A colonialist (n.) produced by empire. Also, a colonialist (adj.) by-product of empire. I think some readers may relate to this dilemma of being displaced by colonialism, only to arrive at a place as another participant in colonization.
21. Gerald Robert Vizenor, “Resistance in the Blood,” in Youth Resistance Research and Theories of Change, ed. Eve Tuck and K. Wayne Yang (New York: Routledge, 2014), 114.
Settler Colonialism Is a Set of Technologies
1. Reem Gafar, “Women’s Land and Property Rights in Kenya,” Center for Women’s Land Rights, October 14, 2014, http://landwise.resourceequity.org/guides/8/generate_pdf#customary-land-tenure-in-formal-law; Valentine Wakoko, “The Evolution of Land Law in Kenya,” https://www.academia.edu/8972722/THE_EVOLUTION_OF_LAND_LAW_IN_KENYA; Dietmar Rothermund, The Routledge Companion to Decolonization, Routledge Companions to History (New York: Routledge, 2006).
2. This resurgence in academic circles can be marked by the luminary work of Patrick Wolfe, “Settler Colonialism and the Elimination of the Native,” Journal of Genocide Research 8, no. 4 (2006): 387–409, and Lorenzo Verancini, Israel and Settler Society (London: Pluto Books, 2006), and with the founding of the journal Settler Colonial Studies in 2011. While acknowledging the importance of the resurgence, I do not want to narrate critical theorizations of settler colonialism as somehow originating from this moment.
3. E.g., Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000).
4. Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (New York: Grove Press, 1963); Albert Memmi, The Colonizer and the Colonized, BP 232 (Boston: Beacon Press, 1967); Eve Tuck, Allison Guess, and Hannah Sultan, “Not Nowhere: Collaborating on Selfsame Land,” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education, and Society, June 26, 2014, https://decolonization.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/notnowhere-pdf.pdf.
5. Hortense J. Spillers, “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book,” Diacritics 17, no. 2 (1987): 73.
6. In this book, Black refers to Black life, people, epistemologies, and the Black radical tradition, whereas black refers to the distortion of blackness into the role of referent for a racial order under white supremacist logics; black is a category of antiblackness, whereas Black was always beyond whiteness and antiblackness—as Fred Moten puts it, “beyond dispossession.”
7. Land is shorthand for land, waters, air, plant and animal life, and Indigenous peoples—in other words, Indigenous worlds in their specific contexts. Landlife is shorthand I use to emphasize that land/life are in relation within Indigenous cosmologies but are actively being separated by colonizing operations.
8. Nelson Maldonado-Torres, “On the Coloniality of Being: Contributions to the Development of a Concept,” Cultural Studies 21, no. 2–3 (2007): 240–70.
9. Jack D. Forbes, Columbus and Other Cannibals: The Wétiko Disease of Exploitation, Imperialism, and Terrorism, rev. ed. (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2008), 22–172.
10. Ruth Wilson Gilmore, afterword to Tuck and Yang, Youth Resistance Research and Theories of Change, 230.
12. This sentence is not meant to make settlers feel better—to flatten “oppression” into a relativism. Even if it isn’t always to their advantage, individual settlers tend to uphold settler supremacy because of its relative advantage (over immigrants yet-to-become settlers) and its promise of unending advantage over Black people, Indigenous people.
13. Imperial accumulation under Marxist rubric is usually considered “primitive accumulation,” or “previous accumulation,” which is an antecedent to capitalist accumulation. Yet, for colonized lands and peoples, there is nothing “previous” or somehow over about imperial accumulation—it is modern, continuing, evolving.
14. la paperson, “A Ghetto Land Pedagogy: An Antidote for Settler Environmentalism,” Environmental Education Research 20, no. 1 (2014): 115–30; Angie Morrill, “Time Traveling Dogs (and Other Native Feminist Ways to Defy Dislocations),” Cultural Studies↔Critical Methodologies 17, no. 1 (2017).
15. Tiffany King, “Labor’s Aphasia: Toward Antiblackness as Constitutive to Settler Colonialism,” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education, and Society, June 10, 2014; see also Frank B. Wilderson, Red, White, and Black: Cinema and the Structure of U.S. Antagonisms (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2010); Tiffany Jeannette King, “In the Clearing: Black Female Bodies, Space, and Settler Colonial Landscapes,” PhD diss., University of Maryland, 2013.
16. Alexander G. Weheliye, Habeas Viscus: Racializing Assemblages, Biopolitics, and Black Feminist Theories of the Human (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2014).
17. Steven Salaita and Peter Gran, The Holy Land in Transit: Colonialism and the Quest for Canaan (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2006); Jodi A. Byrd, The Transit of Empire: Indigenous Critiques of Colonialism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011).
18. Vasconcelos served as Mexico’s minister of education immediately after the Mexican Revolution in 1914 and then as the founding secretary of education in 1920. José Vasconcelos, La Raza Cósmica: Misión de La Raza Iberoamericana: Notas de Viajes a La América de Sur (Paris: Agencia mundial de librería, 1925).
19. Eve Tuck, “Breaking Up with Deleuze: Desire and Valuing the Irreconcilable,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 23, no. 5 (2010): 635–50.
20. I this book, I capitalize Native and Indigenous to refer to identities, cultures, and epistemologies of Indigenous nations, communities, and tribal groups. I use lowercase native and indigenous when explicitly referring to settler and Western concepts of native and indigenous.
21. Katherine McKittrick, Sylvia Wynter: On Being Human as Praxis (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2014); Weheliye, Habeas Viscus.
22. Hortense J. Spillers, Black, White, and in Color: Essays on American Literature and Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 216.
23. Frank Wilderson III, “Gramsci’s Black Marx: Whither the Slave in Civil Society?,” Social Identities 9, no. 2 (2003): 233.
24. Dennis Childs, Slaves of the State (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015).
25. Tiffany Lethabo King, “Interview with Tiffany Lethabo King,” Feral Feminisms, no. 4 (2015): 65.
26. Forbes, Columbus and Other Cannibals, 145–46.
27. Sylvia Wynter, “Unsettling the Coloniality of Being/Power/Truth/Freedom: Towards the Human, after Man, Its Overrepresentation—an Argument,” CR: The New Centennial Review 3, no. 3 (2004): 260.
28. Fred Moten, In the Break: The Aesthetics of the Black Radical Tradition (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003), 140.
29. Tuck, “Breaking Up with Deleuze,” 644.
30. Achille Mbembe, “Necropolitics,” Public Culture 15, no. 1 (2003): 39.
31. I use biopolitics instead of necropolitics in this writing because bio- hails a living and dying world beyond the human, whereas necro- is usually reserved for human death. But there is no difference between biopolitics and necropolitics made in this book (I know they are different).
32. McKittrick, Sylvia Wynter; Childs, Slaves of the State; Cedric J. Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983); Spillers, Black, White, and in Color; Saidiya V. Hartman, Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).
33. Weheliye, Habeas Viscus; Hartman, Scenes of Subjection.
34. Kalindi Vora, Life Support: Biocapital and the New History of Outsourced Labor, Difference Incorporated (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015).
35. Mohan Dewan, “The Realities of Traditional Knowledge and Patents in India,” Intellectual Property Watch, September 27, 2010, http://www.ip-watch.org/2010/09/27/the-realities-of-traditional-knowledge-and-patents/; Mangala Hirwade, “Protecting Traditional Knowledge Digitally: A Case Study of TKDL,” ed. Anil Chikate and Mangala Hirwade, http://eprints.rclis.org/14020/; Vishwas Chouhan, “Protection of Traditional Knowledge in India by Patent: Legal Aspect,” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 3, no. 1 (2012): 35–42.
36. Lyons, X-Marks, 1–3.
37. Gale Courey Toensing, “Oneida Indian Nation Gets Trust Land,” Indian Country Media Network, June 5, 2014, http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2014/06/05/oneida-indian-nation-gets-trust-land-finally-155162.
38. Mary Callahan, “Nearly 700 Acres of Sonoma County Coast Protected under Deal with Landowners, Kashia Pomo,” Press Democrat, October 18, 2015, http://www.pressdemocrat.com/news/4615137-181/nearly-700-acres-of-sonoma?artslide=0.
39. Kristi Eaton, “Reactions to Depp’s Wounded Knee Talk,” Newspaper Rock (blog), July 13, 2013, http://newspaperrock.bluecorncomics.com/2013/07/reactions-to-depps-wounded-knee-talk.html.
40. James Vincent, “This Drone Can Detect and Detonate Land Mines,” The Verge (blog), July 19, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/7/19/12222104/landmine-detecting-drone-mine-kafon-drone; http://minekafon.org/.
41. “Restoration of the Elwha River—Olympic National Park (U.S. National Park Service),” https://www.nps.gov/olym/learn/nature/restorationoftheelwha.htm.
42. Rob Speekenbrink, “TEDxDelft 2012 | Performer: Boyan Slat—How the Oceans Can Clean Themselves,” TEDxDelft, August 28, 2012, http://www.tedxdelft.nl/2012/08/performer-boyan-how-the-oceans-can-clean-themselves/.
44. Ian Frazier, “The March of the Strandbeests,” The New Yorker, September 5, 2011, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2011/09/05/the-march-of-the-strandbeests.
Land. And the University Is Settler Colonial
1. See also Paula Chakravartty and Denise Ferreira da Silva, eds., “Race, Empire, and the Crisis of the Subprime,” special issue, American Quarterly 64, no. 3 (2012).
2. The Morrill Act is still in effect. I use present tense to attend to the contemporary nature of settler colonialism, to insist that our analytics do not refer to settler colonialism as a “past” event.
3. Dewan, “Realities of Traditional Knowledge and Patents in India”; Hirwade, “Protecting Traditional Knowledge Digitally”; Chouhan, “Protection of Traditional Knowledge in India by Patent.”
4. “A Brief History of the University of California,” http://www.ucop.edu/academic-personnel-programs/programs-and-initiatives/faculty-resources-advancement/faculty-handbook-sections/brief-history.html.
5. “APLU Statement in Opposition to Boycott of Israeli Academic Institutions,” APLU, January 2, 2014, http://www.aplu.org/news-and-media/News/aplu-statement-in-opposition-to-boycott-of-israeli-academic-institutions; “About APLU,” APLU, http://www.aplu.org/page.aspx?pid=203.
7. J. I. Albahri, “Hands Clasped behind Her Back: Palestinian Waiting on Theories of Change,” in Tuck and Yang, Youth Resistance Research and Theories of Change, 169.
8. “APLU Statement in Opposition to Boycott of Israeli Academic Institutions.”
9. Associated Press, “US Loses UNESCO Voting Rights after Stopping Funds over Palestine Decision,” The Guardian, November 8, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/08/us-unesco-voting-funds-palestine-decision.
10. The debates and discussions in the ASA spanned at least seven years, and in an election that attracted 1,252 voters, the largest number of participants in the organization’s history, 66.05 percent of voters endorsed the resolution, whereas 30.5 percent of voters voted no and 3.43 percent abstained. The election was a response to the ASA National Council’s announcement on December 4 that it supported the academic boycott and, in an unprecedented action to ensure a democratic process, asked its membership for their approval.
11. “About APLU.”
12. Allen F. Davis, “The Politics of American Studies,” American Quarterly 42, no. 3 (1990): 353–74.
13. James Brown, “Interdisciplinary American Studies and the Cold War: A New, Archival History from the Records of the Library of Congress,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association, Albuquerque, N.M., 2008, http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/4/4/7/8/p244780_index.html.
A Third University Exists within the First
1. Guillermo Bonfil Batalla, México Profundo: Una Civilización Negada, 1st ed. (México, D.F.: Secretaría de Educación Pública/CIESAS, 1987); Gustavo Esteva and Carlos Perez, “The Meaning and Scope of the Struggle for Autonomy,” Latin American Perspectives 28, no. 2 (2001): 120–48.
2. Marcos and Žiga Vodovnik, Ya Basta! Ten Years of the Zapatista Uprising: Writings of Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos, 1st ed. to the United States/United Kingdom (Oakland, Calif.: AK Press, 2004).
3. My use of fourth world is not intended as a reference to “fourth world cinema,” and I am not equating Indigenous worlds with the “fourth world.” Admittedly, my use of the fourth world as a source of wisdom is a bit romanticized. However, I do so not for the sake of romance but for the purpose of asserting that some forms of knowledge and learning ought to refuse the university—following Indigenous writers Audra Simpson, Eve Tuck, and Sandy Grande. Community and Indigenous knowledges are already prefigured in the academy as folk/superstitious, as unscientific, as effeminate, or, in the most colonial ways, as “data” to then be appropriated as objects to be reinterpreted and renarrated back to you. Therefore I am using fourth world to assert the value of those knowledges, without turning them into valued commodities. I am using fourth world to make space.
4. See Chandra Talpade Mohanty, “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses,” Feminist Review, no. 30 (1988): 61–88.
5. See Albahri, “Hands Clasped behind Her Back”; Gilmore, afterword, 230–33.
6. Glen M. Mimura, Ghostlife of Third Cinema: Asian American Film and Video (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009), 30. Mimura lists notable filmmaker collectives that explicitly aligned themselves with Third Cinema: Grupo Cine Liberación; Black Arts movement in London (Sankofa and the Black Audio Film and Video Collective); Amber Films in Newcastle, England; Appalshop in Appalachia, Whitesburg, Kentucky; Third World Newsreel in New York City; Visual Communications in Los Angeles, California. All six were founded in the late 1960s. Ibid., 33.
7. In terms of license/degree programs for profit, vocational and commercial universities represent a type of market share in the first world university.
8. Jean Anyon, Radical Possibilities: Public Policy, Urban Education, and a New Social Movement, Critical Social Thought (New York: Routledge, 2005).
9. Pedro Noguera, “Accept It: Poverty Hurts Learning: Schools Matter, but They’re Not All That Matters,” Daily News, September 2, 2010, http://www.nydailynews.com/opinion/accept-poverty-hurts-learning-schools-matter-matters-article-1.439586#ixzz2pfMZFFfk.
10. Sharmila Choudhury, “Racial and Ethnic Differences in Wealth and Asset Choices,” Social Security Bulletin 64 (2002): 1–15.
11. Thomas M. Shapiro, The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth Perpetuates Inequality (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).
12. Anthony P. Carnevale, Ban Cheah, and Jeff Strohl, “Hard Times: College Majors, Unemployment, and Earnings: Not All College Degrees Are Created Equal,” 2012, https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/handle/10822/559308.
13. Eng-Beng Lim, “Performing the Global University,” Social Text 101 27, no. 4 (2009): 27.
14. Tamar Lewin, “Universities Rush to Set Up Outposts Abroad,” New York Times, February 10, 2008, A1.
15. Jürgen Habermas, Knowledge and Human Interests (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971); Raymond Allen Morrow and Carlos Alberto Torres, Social Theory and Education: A Critique of Theories of Social and Cultural Reproduction (Albany: SUNY Press, 1995).
16. Sara Ahmed, “Against Students,” Feministkilljoys (blog), June 25, 2015, https://feministkilljoys.com/2015/06/25/against-students/.
17. The first world is the “big baby” of the second world university. See the previous chapter on the Morrill Act and land-grant universities as engineering schools born out of more classical universities. The first world university was the baby and is now the sugar daddy.
18. Mimura, Ghostlife of Third Cinema, 32.
19. Whare Wānanga o Awanuia-rangi, “Prospectus,” http://docs.wananga.ac.nz/split_document.php?subfolder=&doc=Prospectus%202016.pdf.
20. “Historia de La ELAM,” http://instituciones.sld.cu/elam/historia-de-la-elam/; Robert Huish and John M. Kirk, “Cuban Medical Internationalism and the Development of the Latin American School of Medicine,” Latin American Perspectives 34, no. 6 (2007): 77–92.
21. Ta-Nehisi Coates and Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and Me (Melbourne: Text Publishing Company, 2015), 40.
22. Rodney Carmichael, “Donald Glover’s Real Rap on ‘Atlanta,’” Creative Loafing Atlanta (blog), August 29, 2016, http://www.clatl.com/culture/article/20831904/donald-glovers-real-rap-on-atlanta.
23. Melanie McFarland, “Inside ‘Atlanta’ with Donald Glover: ‘The Thesis behind the Show Was to Make People Feel Black,’” Salon, August 31, 2016, http://www.salon.com/2016/08/31/inside-atlanta-with-donald-glover-the-thesis-behind-the-show-was-to-make-people-feel-black/.
24. Tracy Clayton and Heben Nigatu, “Two Dollars and a Paperclip,” Another Round (Podcast), September 13, 2016.
25. Adding still more gears, Nigatu and Clayton came up from new media spaces such as BlackTwitter and blogs such as MadameNoir and TheRoot (founded by Henry Louis Gates Jr.). Another Round lives on BuzzFeed.com, one of the single most influential media shapers on the Internet (and thus in mass culture), a site that explicitly functions without a core demographic but through lateral and multiple networks.
26. The year 2016 is a also year that has seen the “Blackening” of mainstream media—from late-night talk show hosts Larry Wilmore (now canceled) and Noah Trevor to black Marvel superhero Luke Cage on Netflix to successful comedy serials Blackish (ABC), Atlanta (FX), and Insecure (HBO) with Issa Rae—mainstream productions with almost no white cast members. Prior to her HBO deal, Rae got attention as creator, writer, actor, and producer of the YouTube series Awkward Black Girl, which went viral enough for a second season premier on record producer Pharrell’s YouTube channel iamOTHER. For the surreal dark comedy Atlanta, Donald Glover, who acted in Community and wrote for NBC’s 30 Rock and also raps as Childish Gambino, similarly absorbed all roles—executive producer, writer, director, executive music producer, and star.
27. DuVernay herself has risen to fame from her 2015 Oscar-nominated film Selma, the first film directed by a Black woman to be nominated for an Academy Award—although DuVernay herself was not nominated, during a year that spawned the much-discussed viral hashtag #OscarsSoWhite created by Black Twitter activist, writer, and former lawyer April Reign.
28. Clayton and Nigatu, “Two Dollars and a Paperclip.”
29. “The work of wings / was always freedom, fastening / one heart to every falling thing.” Li-Young Lee, “One Heart.”
You, a Scyborg
1. Ferguson’s book The Re-order of Things (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012) details the possibilities and complicities, the revolution of appropriations, and the appropriation of the revolution in the university.
2. Memmi, The Colonizer and the Colonized, 4.
3. Richardson, “Navigating the Problem of Inclusion,” 343.
4. Vizenor, quoted ibid., 341.
5. Constantino, “Miseducation of the Filipino,” 2.
6. Veta Schlimgen, “Filipino Students and the Promises of American Citizenship,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Historical Association, San Diego, Calif., 2010, 6.
7. Ibid., 12.
8. Arguably, Hardt and Negri’s reclaiming of the multitudes as a model of resistance benefits from this commonsense conceptualization of marginalized individuality as the basis for an autonomous democracy not rooted in the State. Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire (New York: Penguin, 2005). Their claim is highly problematic when considering the ways that the racial Other is formative of the individual self and the racial is a paradigm that quickly disrupts the equality of marginality from which multitudes arise. Furthermore, Indigenous concepts of the collective first person plural do not assimilate easily into this notion of the multitudes, even though Hardt and Negri essentially use indigeneity as a kind of referent for autonomous groups. For critiques of multitudes, see Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, New World Drama: The Performative Commons in the Atlantic World, 1649–1849 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2014), and Richard J. F. Day and Nick Montgomery, “Letter to a Greek Anarchist: On Multitudes, Peoples, and New Empires,” in Radical Democracy and Collective Movements Today: The Biopolitics of the Multitude versus the Hegemony of the People, ed. Alexandros Kioupkiolis and Giorgos Katsambekis, 45–72 (New York: Routledge, 2016).
9. For femtech, see Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women; for ultrasound, see Barad, “Getting Real”; Vora, Life Support.
10. It is a linguistic accident that agency has a similar spelling to the French word for “assemblage”: agencement or “layout; organization.” Agencement is the term that Deleuze and Guattari used, which became translated into English as “assemblage.”
11. In calling scyborg an adjective, I note that scyborg should not be a new sexy identity that displaces critical interrogations about race, gender, sexuality, ability. Here I deviate a bit from Haraway’s important writings in Simians, Cyborgs, and Women and draw from insights from Jasbir Puar’s critique of the binary postulated by the juxtaposition of cyborg and goddess in “I Would Rather Be a Cyborg than a Goddess.”
12. In using the phrase “in assemblage” rather than “an assemblage,” I am building off of Puar’s insights. Puar, “I Would Rather Be a Cyborg than a Goddess”; see also John Phillips, “Agencement/Assemblage,” Theory, Culture, and Society 23, no. 2–3 (2006): 108–9. “‘Assemblage’ is actually an awkward translation—the original term in Deleuze and Guattari’s work is not the French word assemblage, but actually agencement, a term which means design, layout, organization, arrangement, and relations—the focus being not on content but on relations, relations of patterns” (57). However, I in effect mean both “universities are an assemblage” and that they are “in assemblage,” the latter emphasizing what university scyborgs in assemblage can do as a result of these relations in which they are embedded.
13. Simon Leung, “The Look of Law,” Art Journal 66, no. 3 (2007): 38.
14. Julie Burelle, “Theatre in Contested Lands: Repatriating Indigenous Remains,” The Drama Review 59, no. 1 (2015): 116.
15. Ruth Wilson Gilmore, “Fatal Couplings of Power and Difference: Notes on Racism and Geography,” The Professional Geographer 54, no. 1 (2002): 21.
16. I am using subject here to include a person (the scyborg) who is interpellated in lattices of power (the scyborg is at once subjugated by power, produced as a subject by power, and a subjective participant in power) but also the wills, forces, and desires that surround and exceed a person (the scyborg in assemblage). The scyborg is a who/what that powers multiscalar dynamics in lattices of power.
17. It is yet another linguistic accident that assemblage seems to reference “assemblage,” meaning “collage” in avant-garde art. However, collage is an incomplete metaphor.
18. Yet, this is to say, the scyborg is not an individual robot. The scyborg is your personal influence in a far larger robot. Here I am talking about the collective agency of your decolonial machine.
19. In a Gramscian sense, the scyborg is an “inorganic” intellectual.
20. “What is the ideology of an assemblage?” is a question that makes sense only in broken ways. First, ideology makes sense in terms of the intention of the design; and ideology makes sense in terms of what the assemblage actually produces; and ideology makes sense in terms of ideological material that is scattered about the assemblage. Each of these senses is broken. The actual assemblage always breaks from the intended design (and we can think of examples like Indian boarding schools, on one hand—they did not succeed wholly in exterminating Native peoples—and, on the other, revolutionary nationalisms, which did not succeed in liberating the people from oppressive patriarchal states). Real production is the result of real machines that are always breaking down. See Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Seem, and Helen R. Lane (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983). Ideological material is impure; ideas and ideologies are also scavenger materials that are woven together to build new assemblages. In the art of assemblages, the question of ideology cannot be fixed to the objects in assemblage—a point with which I might differ from certain views in the STS debate. What the assemblage actually produces is a kind of practical ideology—and this is what the assemblage produces when it breaks down (and in D&G+F formulation, all machines are breaking down; they work by breaking down). A critical discussion of ideology can only be done by talking about ideological breakage.
24. Karyn Recollet, “Gesturing Indigenous Futurities through the Remix,” Dance Research Journal 48, no. 1 (2016): 91–105.
25. Stefano Harney and Fred Moten, The Undercommons: Fugitive Planning and Black Study (New York: Minor Compositions, 2013).
26. Signithia Fordham, “What Does an Umbrella Do for the Rain? On the Efficacy and Limitations of Resistance,” in Tuck and Yang, Youth Resistance Research and Theories of Change, 98.