Plural Ships on Plural Seas
1 Rachel Carson, The Sea around Us (New York: Oxford University Press, 1951), vi.
2 Dudley’s atlas, Dell’Arcano del Mare, was published in Florence in 1645–46. My thanks to Chet van Duzer for helping me identify that Carson’s map originally comes from Lucini and Dudley’s volume.
3 On the BABEL-sponsored event in Santa Barbara, see my blog-wrapup: http://stevementz.com/babel-2016-preview-heading-to-the-beach-in-santa-barbara/. Accessed July 18, 2018.
Pluralize the Anthropocene!
1 Bruno Latour, “Life among Conceptual Characters,” New Literary History 47, no. 2–3 (2016): 463–76 at 474.
2 Jan Zalasiewicz, C. P. Summerhayes, Colin Neil Waters, Mark Williams et al., “The Working Group on the Anthropocene: Summary of Evidence and Interim Recommendations,” Anthropocene 19, no. 55–60 (September 2017): https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319613362_The_Working_Group_on_the_Anthropocene_Summary_of_evidence_and_interim_recommendations. Accessed July 19. 2018.
3 For my earlier quibble with McKibben regarding the number 350, see “Tongues in the Storm: Shakespeare, Ecological Crisis, and the Resources of Genre,” in Ecocritical Shakespeare, ed. Lynne Brucker and Dan Brayton, 155–71 (Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate Publishing, 2011).
4 Timothy Morton, Dark Ecology: For a Logic of Future Coexistence (New York: Columbia University Press, 2016), 24. Italics in original.
5 Phillip John Usher, “Untranslating the Anthropocene,” diacritics 44, no. 3 (2016): 56–77.
6 Astrida Neimanis, Bodies of Water: Posthuman Feminist Phenomenology (London: Bloomsbury, 2017).
7 Donna Haraway, Staying with the Trouble: Making Kin in the Chthulucene (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2016).
8 Jeremy Davies, Birth of the Anthropocene (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2018).
9 Timothy Morton, Humankind: Solidarity with Nonhuman People (London: Verso, 2017).
10 James Scott, Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2017).
11 William Ruddiman, Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005).
12 Tobias Menely and Jesse Oak Taylor, Anthropocene Reading: Literary History in Geologic Times (State College: Penn State University Press, 2017). My essay in the volume is “Enter Anthropocene, circa 1610,” 43–58.
Six Human Postures
1 Jason W. Moore, Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital (London: Verso, 2015), 2.
2 Martin Heidegger, “The Question Concerning Technology,” in Basic Writings, ed. David Farrell Krell, 307–42 (New York: Harper Collins, 1993)
3 Alfred W. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing, 1972). For my speculations on why “ecological globalization” may be a preferred term, see Shipwreck Modernity: Ecologies of Globalization, 1550–1719 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015), xxvi–xxxii.
4 Raj Patel and Jason W. Moore, A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things: A Guide to Capitalism, Nature, and the Future of the Planet (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2017), 22.
5 Jason W. Moore, ed., Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism (Oakland, Calif.: Kairos/PM Press, 2016), 5.
6 McKenzie Wark, Molecular Red: Theory for the Anthropocene (London: Verso, 2015).
7 Anna Tsing, The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2015).
8 Donna Haraway, Staying with the Trouble: Making Kin in the Chthulucene (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2016), 5–6.
9 Donna Haraway and Cary Wolfe, “Companions in Conversation,” in Manifestly Haraway (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2016), 201.
10 Bruno Latour, We Have Never Been Modern, trans. Catherine Porter (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993). French original, 1991.
11 On Actor-Network Theory, see Bruno Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). For Latour on the Anthropocene, see Facing Gaia: Eight Lectures on the New Climatic Regime, trans. Catherine Porter (New York: Polity Press, 2017).
12 See Facing Gaia, 136–45. See also Isabelle Stengers, In Catastrophic Times: Resisting the Coming Barbarism, trans. Andrew Goffey (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Open Humanities Press, 2015).
13 Bruno Latour, Down to Earth: Politics in the New Climatic Regime (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2018), 40.
14 Jedediah Purdy, After Nature: A Politics of the Anthropocene (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2015).
15 Morton’s eco-books include Ecology without Nature (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007); The Ecological Thought (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010); Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013); Dark Ecology (2016); Humankind: Solidarity with Nonhuman People (London: Verso, 2017); and Being Ecological (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2018).
16 Morton, Humankind, 113.
17 Morton, Being Ecological, 5.
18 Morton, Dark Ecology, 130; Morton, Hyperobjects, 196.
19 The collaboration started with the “Ecomaterialism” special issue of Postmedieval 4, no. 1 (Spring 2013) and then extended through three collections: Prismatic Ecology: Ecotheory beyond Green (2013), ed. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen; Elemental Ecocriticism: Thinking with Earth, Air, Water, and Fire, ed. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen and Lowell Duckert (2015); and Veer Ecology: A Companion for Environmental Thinking, ed. Cohen and Duckert (2017), all published by the University of Minnesota Press. These four volumes include the work of roughly fifty authors in multiple fields. (Full disclosure: I have an essay in each of the four collections.)
20 Jeffrey Jerome Cohen, Stone: An Ecology of the Inhuman (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015), 65.
21 For Cohen’s critique of “Green Criticism,” see Prismatic, xix–xxiii.
22 Elemental, 18. This passage plays with two landmark ecocritical projects: “forward thinking” is the title of Morton’s third chapter in The Ecological Thought, and the “comedy of survival” refers to Joseph Meeker’s early study, The Comedy of Survival: Literary Ecology and a Play Ethic, 3rd ed. (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1997).
23 See For All Waters, passim. Duckert draws on Latour’s “An Attempt at a ‘Compositionist Manifesto,’” New Literary History 41 (2010): 471–90.
24 Jeffrey Jerome Cohen and Lowell Duckert, “Howl: Editors’ Introduction” Postmedieval 4, no. 1 (Spring 2013): 1–5 at 5.
25 Joanna Zylinska, Minimal Ethics for the Anthropocene (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Open Humanities Press, 2014), 46.
26 Stacy Alaimo, Exposed: Environmental Politics and Pleasures in Posthuman Times (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2016), 1.
27 Stacy Alaimo, Bodily Natures: Science, Environment, and the Material Self (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010), 20.
28 Richard Grusin, ed., Anthropocene Feminism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2017), xi.
29 Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. Brian Massumi, 2nd ed. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987); Jane Bennett, Vibrant Matter: A Material Ecology of Things (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2010).
30 Joshua Clover and Juliana Spahr, “Gender Abolition and Ecotone War,” in Anthropocene Feminism, ed. Grusin, 147–67.
31 Alaimo, Exposed, 168. This chapter, “Your Shell on Acid,” also appears in Anthropocene Feminism.
32 Neimanis, Bodies of Water, 98. Neimanis develops her idea of membrane in dialogue with Karen Barad’s “agential separability” in Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2007) and Luce Irigaray’s figurations of water in Marine Lover (of Friedrich Nietzsche) trans. Gillian C. Gill (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991). For my own speculations about seepage across borders, see “Seep,” in Veer Ecology, ed. Cohen and Duckert, 282–96.
33 Karin Amimoto Ingersoll, Waves of Knowing: A Seascape Epistemology (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press 2016), 6.
34 On Ocean-as-Anthropocene, see my entry in Anthropocene Unseen: A Lexicon, ed. Cymene Howe and Anand Pandian, (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Punctum Books, forthcoming).
35 Kyle Whyte, “Indigenous Climate Change Studies: Indigenizing Futures, Decolonizing the Anthropocene,” English Language Notes 55, no. 1–2 (Fall 2017): 153–62.
36 Jonathan Lear, Radical Hope: Ethics in the Face of Cultural Devastation (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006).
Anachronism as Method
1 Peter Adkins brought Derrida’s passage to my attention in a perceptive review of my book Shipwreck Modernity: https://glasgowreviewofbooks.com/2016/07/20/anthropocene-flotsam-steve-mentzs-shipwreck-modernity-ecologies-of-globalization-1550-1719/. Accessed July 19, 2018.
2 Timothy Snyder, On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century (New York: Penguin, 2017).
3 William Shakespeare, The Winter’s Tale, ed. John Pitcher (London: Bloomsbury/Arden3, 2010), 3.2.90.
“Now, Now, Very Now!”
1 William Shakespeare, Othello, ed. E. A. J. Honingmann (London: Bloomsbury/Arden 3, 2003). Quotations in the text by act, scene, and line numbers.
2 Rob Nixon, Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011), 8.
3 Jorge Luis Borges, “The Garden of Forking Paths,” in Labyrinths: Selected Stories and Other Writings, trans. Donald Yates (New York: New Directions, 1964), 19–29.
4 This chestnut of traditional criticism appears most prominently in A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth (London: Macmillan, 1919), first published 1904.
5 For my previous thoughts on this passage and the maritime meanings of this play, see “Keeping Watch: Othello” in At the Bottom of Shakespeare’s Ocean, 19–32 (London: Bloomsbury, 2009).
6 William Shakespeare, Hamlet, ed. Ann Thompson and Neil Taylor (London: Bloomsbury/Arden3, 2006).
7 Identified in the Amherst archive as manuscript #252, this scrap can be seen on the Emily Dickinson Archive website: http://www.edickinson.org/editions/1/image_sets/238648. Accessed July 19, 2018.
1 Steve Mentz, “Mapping Uncertainty: Marine Cartography, the Wright-Molyneux Map, and Twelfth Night,” English Language Notes 52, no. 2, “Cartographies of Dissent” (2014): 53–59.
2 John Milton, Paradise Lost, in The Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. Merritt Y. Hughes (New York: Macmillan, 1957), 230.
3 Northrop Frye, The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of Romance (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978), 4.
4 Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, ed. A.C. Hamilton (London: Pearson, 2001), 35–36.
5 On dynamic ecology, see Daniel Botkin, Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-first Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992). For my literary responses to Botkin’s ideas, see “After Sustainability,” PMLA 127, no. 3 (May 2012): 586–92, and “Strange Weather in King Lear,” Shakespeare 6, no. 2 (2010): 139–52.
6 Morton provides perhaps the pithiest articulation of this idea in the title of Ecology without Nature, but it’s a widely held idea in posthuman ecotheory.
7 On this gnomic phrase, see Pierre Hadot, The Veil of Isis: An Essay on the History of the Idea of Nature, trans. Michael Chase (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008).
1 Christophe Bonneuil and Jean-Baptise Fressoz, The Shock of the Anthropocene (London: Verso, 2016).
2 Jussi Parrika, The Anthrobscene (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014), 6.
3 Jussi Parrika, A Geology of Media (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015).
4 Jason W. Moore, Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital (London: Verso, 2015).
5 Donna Haraway, Staying with the Trouble: Making Kin in the Chthulucene (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2016).
6 Kim Stanley Robinson, 2312 (New York: Orbit Books, 2013).
8 Charles C. Mann, 1493: Uncovering the New World that Columbus Created (New York: Knopf, 2011).
9 See https://anomiegeographie.wordpress.com/2017/03/27/the-jolyoncene/. Accessed July 11, 2018.
10 Kate Raworth, “Must the Anthropocene Be a Manthropocene?” The Guardian, October 20, 2014: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/oct/20/anthropocene-working-group-science-gender-bias. Accessed July 11, 2018.
11 Raj Patel and Jason W. Moore, A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things: A Guide to Capitalism, Nature, and the Future of the Planet (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2017).
12 Raj Patel, “The Misanthropocene,” Earth Island Journal (Spring 2013): http://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/eij/article/misanthropocene/. Accessed July 11, 2018.
13 Steve Mentz, Shipwreck Modernity: Ecologies of Globalization, 1550–1719 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015).
14 Justin McBrien, “Accumulating Extinction: Planetary Catastrophism in the Necrocene,” in Anthropocene or Capitolocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism, ed. Jason W. Moore, 116–37, (London: PM Press, 2016), 116.
15 Anna Tsing, lecture “Earth Stalked by Man,” University of California, Santa Cruz. Cited in Catherine Ashcraft and Tamar Mayer, eds., The Politics of Fresh Water: Access, Conflict, and Identity (London: Routledge, 2016), 189.
16 Nixon, Slow Violence.
18 Glenn Albrecht, “Exiting the Anthropocene and Entering the Symbiocene,” Minding Nature 9, no. 2 (Spring 2016): https://www.humansandnature.org/exiting-the-anthropocene-and-entering-the-symbiocene. Accessed July 11, 2018.
19 Peregrine Horden and Nicholas Purcell, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History (London: Routledge, 2000).
20 Alf Hornborg, “The Political Ecology of the Technocene,” in The Anthropocene and the Global Environmental Crisis: Rethinking Modernity in a New Epoch, ed. Clive Hamilton and Francois Gemenne, 57–69 (New York: Routledge, 2015).
21 Kyle McGee, Heathen Earth: Trumpism and Political Ecology (Brooklyn: Punctum Books, 2017), 91.
Acting Human. Being Posthuman
1 “Jonah,” King James Bible (The Authorized Version), ed. David Norton (New York: Penguin, 2006) 1209–11.
2 Herman Melville, Moby-Dick, or The Whale, ed. Hershel Parker and Harrison Hayford (New York: Norton, 2002), 51.
3 Heathcote Williams, Whale Nation (New York: Harmony Books, 1988), 18, 22.
4 Arthur Boyd and Peter Porter, Jonah (London: Secker & Warburg, 1973), 39.
5 Rosi Braidotti, The Posthuman (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2017), 17.
6 Cary Wolfe, What Is Posthumanism? (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), xv.
7 Sjón, From the Mouth of the Whale, trans. Victoria Cribb (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011), 230.
8 Luce Irigaray, Marine Lover (of Friedrich Nietzsche), trans. Gillian C. Gill (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), 12, 13.