1. “Reading, Writing, and Enrichment,” The Economist, January 14, 1999; William C. Symonds, “Special Report: Education a New Push to Privatize,” Businessweek, January 14, 2002, 11.
2. Addison Wiggin, “Charter School Gravy Train Runs Express to Fat City,” Forbes, September 10, 2013.
3. Valerie Strauss, “Why Hedge Funds Love Charter Schools,” Washington Post, June 4, 2014.
4. Jake Bryant and Jimmy Sarakatsannis, “Why US Education Is Ready for Investment,” McKinsey & Company, July 2015, https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/social-sector/our-insights/why-us-education-is-ready-for-investment.
5. See, e.g., Kenneth Saltman, The Failure of Corporate School Reform (New York: Routledge, 2015); Saltman, Capitalizing on Disaster: Taking and Breaking Public Schools (New York: Routledge, 2007); Saltman, The Edison Schools (New York: Routledge, 2005); Saltman, Collateral Damage (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000).
6. Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis, Schooling in Capitalist America (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2011); Henry Giroux, Theory and Resistance in Education (Westport, Conn.: Bergin and Garvey, 1983).
7. The concept of unbundling schooling is succinctly described by Frederick Hess, Bruno Manno, and Olivia Meeks at the American Enterprise Institute in “From School Choice to Educational Choice,” http://www.aei.org/publication/from-school-choice-to-educational-choice/.
The Alienation of Fact
1. Zygmunt Bauman, Strangers at Our Door (New York: Polity, 2016).
2. Three major new studies of vouchers were released at the start of 2017 that joined with other studies and international studies from Chile and India to paint an utterly damning picture of the empirical case for vouchers. See Martin Carnoy, “School Vouchers Are Not a Proven Strategy for Improving Student Achievement,” Economic Policy Institute, February 28, 2017, http://www.epi.org/publication/school-vouchers-are-not-a-proven-strategy-for-improving-student-achievement/.
3. See, e.g., Stephen Jay Gould’s The Mismeasure of Man (New York: W. W. Norton, 1996) or a contemporary dissection of the application of these ideas in Mark Garrison, A Measure of Failure (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2009).
4. See Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (New York: Continuum, 1972), and Giroux, Theory and Resistance in Education.
5. See David Berliner and Bruce Biddle, The Manufactured Crisis (New York: Basic Books, 1996), and, more recently, Gene Glass and David Berliner, 50 Myths and Lies that Threaten America’s Public Schools: The Real Crisis in Education (New York: Teachers College Press, 2014).
6. Caitlin Emma, Benjamin Wermund, and Kimberly Hefling, “Devos’ Michigan Schools Experiment Gets Poor Grades,” Politico, http://www.politico.com/story/2016/12/betsy-devos-michigan-school-experiment-232399. For a review of the educational policy scholarship situated in terms of a broader advocacy of critical education, see Saltman, Failure of Corporate School Reform.
7. Carnoy, “School Vouchers.”
9. Paul T. Hill, with Christine Campbell et al., Portfolio School Districts for Big Cities: An Interim Report (Seattle, Wash.: Center on Reinventing Public Education, October 2009); Saltman, Failure of Corporate School Reform.
10. David Leonhardt, “A Plea for a Fact-Based Debate about Charter Schools,” New York Times, July 22, 2018; Sean F. Reardon and Rebecca Hinze-Pifer, Test Score Growth among Chicago Public School Students, 2009–2014 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, November 2017).
12. Fact Checker, “President Trump Has Made 4,229 False or Misleading Claims in 558 Days,” Washington Post, August 4, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2018/08/01/president-trump-has-made-4229-false-or-misleading-claims-in-558-days/?utm_term=.49e4aee342c8.
13. Emma et al., “Devos’ Michigan Schools Experiment.”
14. Ulrich Boser, “Betsy Devos Has Invested Millions in This Brain Training Center. So I Checked It Out,” Washington Post, May 26, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2017/05/26/betsy-devos-neurocore/?utm_term=.366a865e3c3d.
15. See Robert McChesney, Digital Disconnect (New York: The New Press, 2013).
16. Susan McWilliams, “This Political Theorist Predicted the Rise of Trumpism: His Name Was Hunter S. Thompson,” The Nation, December 15, 2016.
17. Theodor Adorno, Introduction to Sociology (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2002).
18. Pierre Bourdieu and Jean Passeron, Reproduction in Education Society and Culture (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1990).
Social Impact Bonds/Pay for Success
1. Melissa Sanchez, “Investors Earn Max Initial Payment from Chicago’s ‘Social Impact Bond,’” Chicago Reporter, May 16, 2016, https://www.chicagoreporter.com/investors-earn-max-initial-payment-from-chicagos-social-impact-bond/.
2. Sophie Quinton, “How Goldman Sachs Can Help Save the Safety Net,” National Journal, May 10, 2013, 1.
3. Nicole Wallace, “With a Few Pay-for-Success Plans Under Way, the Idea Is Gaining Currency and Criticism,” Chronicle of Philanthropy 26, no. 15 (2014): 1–23.
4. Martha Ann Overland, “Paying for Results: A New Approach to Government Aid,” Chronicle of Philanthropy 23, no. 7 (2011): 9.
5. Drew Von Glahn and Caroline Whistler, “Pay for Success Programs: An Introduction,” Policy and Practice, June 2011.
6. Frank Newport, “Americans Say Yes to Spending More on VA,” Gallup, March 21, 2016, http://www.gallup.com/poll/190136/americans-say-yes-spending-infrastructure.aspx?g_source=federal%20spending&g_medium=search&g_campaign=tiles; Newport, “Majority in U.S. Support Fed-Funded Healthcare System,” Gallup, May 16, 2016, http://www.gallup.com/poll/191504/majority-support-idea-fed-funded-healthcare-system.aspx?g_source=Politics&g_medium=newsfeed&g_campaign=tiles.
7. Overland, “Paying for Results.”
8. Mayor’s Press Office, “Mayor Emanuel Announces Expansion of Pre-K to More than 2,600 Chicago Public School Children,” City of Chicago, October 7, 2014, http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/mayor/press_room/press_releases/2014/oct/mayor-emanuel-announces-expansion-of-pre-k-to-more-than-2-600-ch.html.
9. Mayor’s Press Office.
10. Melissa Sanchez, “Child–Parent Centers Boast Strong Results for Kids, Investors,” Chicago Reporter, May 16, 2016.
11. Sanchez, “Investors Earn Max Initial Payment.”
12. Sanchez, “Child–Parent Centers Boast Strong Results.”
13. Quinton, “How Goldman Sachs Can Help Save the Safety Net,” 1.
14. Overland, “Paying for Results,” 9.
15. David Macdonald, “Anti-Philanthropy: Social Impact Bond the Worst Way to Fund Social Programs,” CCPA Monitor, February 2013, 37.
16. Ben Joravsky, “Rahm’s Latest Wall Street Bond Deal Is a Bad Deal for the City,” The Chicago Reader, February 11, 2016, http://www.chicagoreader.com/Bleader/archives/2016/02/11/rahms-latest-wall-street-bond-deal-is-a-bad-deal-for-the-city.
17. Macdonald, “Anti-Philanthropy,” 37.
18. Von Glahn and Whistler, “Pay for Success Programs.”
19. Overland, “Paying for Results,” 5.
20. Saltman, Edison Schools.
21. Wallace, “With a Few Pay-for-Success Plans,” 4.
22. Wallace, 4.
23. Liz Farmer, “The Hidden Cost to ‘Pay for Success,’” Governing, November 12, 2015, http://www.governing.com/topics/finance/gov-cost-pay-for-success-social-impact-bonds.html.
24. E. Gaylor, T. Kutaka, K. Ferguson, C. Williamson, X. Wei, and D. Spiker, Evaluation of Kindergarten Readiness in Five Child–Parent Centers: Report for 2014–15 (Menlo Park, Calif.: SRI International 2016), 16.
25. Giroux, Theory and Resistance in Education.
26. Wallace, “With a Few Pay-for-Success Plans,” 2.
27. Lucinda Shen, “Goldman Sachs Finally Admits It Defrauded Investors during the Financial Crisis,” Fortune, April 11, 2016.
28. Quinton, “How Goldman Sachs Can Help Save the Safety Net,” 1.
29. Melissa Sanchez, “For the Record: Paying for Preschool with Social Impact Bonds,” Chicago Reporter, November 3, 2014, https://www.chicagoreporter.com/record-paying-preschool-social-impact-bonds/.
31. Sanchez, 2.
32. Wallace, “With a Few Pay-for-Success Plans.”
33. Wallace, 5.
34. Wallace, 5.
35. Wallace, 6.
36. Saltman, The Gift of Education: Public Education and Venture Philanthropy (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).
38. Macdonald, “Anti-Philanthropy,” 1.
39. J. Hoback, “Private Money, Public Impact,” State Legislatures, May 2015, 26–29.
40. Sanchez, “Investors Earn Max Initial Payment.”
Student Income Loans
2. Nika Knight, “Sen. Elizabeth Warren Calls for Total Overhaul of Student Loan System,” Common Dreams, March 31, 2016.
3. Douglas Belkin, “More College Students Selling Stock—in Themselves,” Wall Street Journal, August 5, 2015, 5.
4. Maggie McGrath, “Student Debt as an Asset Class: A $1 Trillion Opportunity?,” Forbes, December 10, 2014, 2.
6. Jack Du, “Student Loan Asset-Backed Securities: Safe or Subprime?,” Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/081815/student-loan-assetbacked-securities-safe-or-subprime.asp.
7. Andrew Ross, “Mortgaging the Future: Student Debt in the Age of Austerity,” New Labor Forum 22, no. 1 (2013): 23–28.
8. As quoted in Jeff Bryant, “Wall Street’s New Student Loan Scheme: Subprime Loans Are Coming to Financial Aid,” Salon, March 30, 2015, 8.
9. Henry Giroux, “Authoritarian Politics in the Age of Civic Illiteracy,” Counterpunch, April 15, 2016, https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/04/15/authoritarian-politics-in-the-age-of-civic-illiteracy/.
10. McGrath, “Student Debt as an Asset Class.”
“Philanthrocapitalism” and Personalized Learning
1. Dale Russakoff, The Prize: Who’s in Charge of America’s Schools (New York: Mariner Books, 2016).
4. See Russakoff. Some of the key organizations included Democrats for Education Reform, McKinsey Consulting, and New Schools Venture Fund, among many others.
5. Omidyar Network has both a for-profit LLC and a nonprofit wing.
6. Omidyar Network invests in numerous for-profit education companies, including for-profit Bridge International Academies, which has faced extensive criticism around the world for its actions, performance, and school model. CZI also invests in Bridge International Academies.
7. Mike Isaac, “On the Road, Out of His Bubble,” New York Times, May 26, 2017, B1.
8. Jocalyn Clark and Linsey McGoey, “The Black Box Warning on Philanthrocapitalism,” The Lancet 388 (2016): 2457–59.
9. Daniel Dykes and Michael S. Schwartz, “The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative,” Trusts and Estates, May 2016.
10. Martin Levine, “Chan Zuckerberg LLC: No Tax Breaks + No Accountability = What Exactly?” Non-Profit Quarterly, December 7, 2015.
11. Saltman, Gift of Education.
12. See Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth, 1889, https://www.carnegie.org/publications/the-gospel-of-wealth/. See also the important scholarship of Joan Roelofs and Robert Arnove on the uses of philanthropy for elite rule.
13. Saltman, Failure of Corporate School Reform.
14. The big four educational publishers invested millions in lobbying for test-based accountability and made billions of dollars of profit as a consequence. Valerie Strauss, “Big Education Firms Spend Millions Lobbying for Pro-Testing Policies,” Washington Post, March 30, 2015. See Kenneth J. Saltman, “Corporate Schooling Meets Corporate Media: Standards, Testing, and Technophilia,” Review of Education Pedagogy Cultural Studies 38, no. 2 (2016): 105–23. On the topic of lobbying and influence peddling by education corporations, see Helen Gunter and Colin Mills, Consultants and Consultancy: The Case of Education (Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017); Helen Gunter, David Hall, and Michael Apple, Corporate Elites and the Reform of Public Education (Bristol, U.K.: Policy Press, 2017), and Wayne Au and Jospeh Ferrara, Mapping Corporate Education Reform: Politics and Power in the Neoliberal State (New York: Routledge, 2016).
15. Natasha Singer and Mike Isaac, “Mark Zuckerberg’s Philanthropy Uses L.L.C. for More Control,” New York Times, December 2, 2015.
16. Singer and Isaac.
17. Clark and McGoey, “Black Box Warning on Philanthrocapitalism,” 2458.
18. Dykes and Schwartz, “Chan Zuckerberg Initiative.”
19. Levine, “Chan Zuckerberg LLC.”
20. For a valuable discussion of the incompatibility of corporate social responsibility and the corporation, see Joel Bakan, The Corporation (New York: The Free Press, 2005).
21. See James Tooley, The Beautiful Tree (Washington, D.C.: Cato, 2009).
22. See Terry M. Moe and John E. Chubb, Liberating Learning (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009). This kind of advocacy for debundling and privatizing through technology can be found in the advocacy of right-wing think tanks like Hoover and AEI.
23. Sindhu Kashyap, “Why BYJU’s Chose to Bet on Edurite and Tutorvista,” Your Story, May 15, 2017, https://yourstory.com/2017/05/byjus-edurite-tutorvista/.
24. Sayan Chakraborty, “BYJU’s Updates App, Aims to Make Profits This Year,” LiveMint, May 24, 2017, https://www.livemint.com/Companies/W0pmP4tPipqmo8ozq9lMDJ/Byjus-updates-app-aims-to-make-profits-this-year.html.
25. See Faith Boninger, Alex Molnar, and Kevin Murray, “Asleep at the Switch: Schoolhouse Commercialism, Student Privacy, and the Failure of Policymaking,” National Education Policy Center, August 2017, http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/schoolhouse-commercialism-2017; see also Emma Brown and Todd C. Frankel, “Facebook Backed School Software Shows Promise and Raises Privacy Concerns,” Washington Post, October 11, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/facebook-backed-school-software-shows-promise-and-raises-privacy-concerns/2016/10/11/2580f9fe-80c6-11e6-b002-307601806392_story.html.
26. Summit’s user agreement with schools is available at https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4_mvdmEmtsTYXF4M3RUb1hLalE/view.
27. Natasha Singer, “The Silicon Valley Billionaires Remaking America’s Schools,” New York Times, June 6, 2017.
29. Gregg Toppo, “College Board, Zuckerberg Hope to Boost Access to College Partnership to Focus on Motivation and Student Achievement,” USA Today, May 16, 2017, A3.
30. Singer, “Silicon Valley Billionaires.”
32. Tim Newcomb, “Will Personalized Learning Become the New Normal?,” The Atlantic, March 29, 2017.
33. Chris Berdik, “Tipping Point: Can Summit Put Personalized Learning over the Top?,” The Hechinger Report, January 17, 2017.
34. “Summit requires Basecamp schools to follow its practice of basing 30 percent of grades on mastery of content and 70 percent on students’ use of various cognitive skills, such as making inferences and clearly communicating their ideas.” Berdik.
35. Heather Roberts Mahoney, Alexander Means, and Mark Garrison, “Netflixing Human Capital Development: Personalized Learning Technology and the Corporatization of K–12 Education,” Journal of Education Policy 31, no. 4 (2016): 405–20.
36. Saltman, “Corporate Schooling Meets Corporate Media.”
37. Algorithms are not neutral, point out Boninger et al., “Asleep at the Switch.”
38. Singer, “Silicon Valley Billionaires.”
39. This example comes from Eric Gutstein. See also the work of Mark Wolfmeyer, such as Mathematics Education: A Critical Introduction (New York: Routledge, 2017).
40. Newcomb, “Will Personalized Learning Become the New Normal?”
41. See, e.g., Stuart Hall, Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1997).
42. Henry A. Giroux, On Critical Pedagogy (New York: Continuum, 2011).
Charter School Real Estate Schemes
1. Andre Agassi, Open: An Autobiography (New York: Viking Press, 2009).
2. Ruth Mccambridge, “Hedge Funds, Andre Agassi, and Charter Schools: Education Capitalism in Action,” Non-Profit Quarterly, October 31, 2014.
3. Bruce Baker and Gary Miron, “The Business of Charter Schooling: Understanding the Policies That Charter Operators Use for Financial Benefit,” National Education Policy Center, December 10, 2015, http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/charter-revenue, 8.
4. Baker and Miron, 7.
5. Baker and Miron, 8.
6. Dan Mihalopoulos and Paul Saltzman, “Tracking Charter Finance,” The IRE Journal, Summer 2014, 20–22.
7. Alan Singer, “Why Rich Folks Love Charter Schools,” Seattle Education, November 14, 2015.
8. Mccambridge, “Hedge Funds.”
9. Paul Perry, “Is Impact Investment About to Turbo-Charge the Charter School Movement,” Inside Philanthropy, August 29, 2016, https://www.insidephilanthropy.com/home/2016/8/29/is-impact-investing-about-to-turbo-charge-the-charter-school.html.
10. Bruce D. Baker of Rutgers University is a leading scholar of school finance. In addition to his scholarly journal articles, his blogs are a crucial resource. He blogs at School Finance 101. See Baker, “We Bought It Twice but We No Longer Own It: The Bad Public Policy behind Charter School Real Estate Deals,” School Finance 101 (blog), July 21, 2015, https://schoolfinance101.wordpress.com/2015/07/21/we-bought-it-twice-but-we-no-longer-own-it-is-co-location-the-better-option/.
11. Kristin Rawls, “Who Is Profiting from Charters? The Big Bucks behind Charter School Secrecy, Financial Scandal and Corruption,” Alternet, May 8, 2013, https://www.alternet.org/education/who-profiting-charters-big-bucks-behind-charter-school-secrecy-financial-scandal-and.
12. Strauss, “Why Hedge Funds Love Charter Schools.”
13. See Wiggin, “Charter School Gravy Train”; Singer, “Why Rich Folks Love Charter Schools”; Strauss, “Why Hedge Funds Love Charter Schools”; and A. D. Pruitt, “Entertainment REIT in Trouble at School—Theater Landlord’s Push into the Education Business Hits a Snag; CEO Says He Has Learned Several Important Lessons,” Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2012, C8.
14. Reuters, “Number of Charter Schools, Students in U.S. Rises: Report,” August 22, 2017, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-education-charterschools/number-of-charter-schools-students-in-u-s-rises-report-idUSKCN1B22JX.
15. Aaron Kuriloff, “Charter Schools Find Smarter Way to Borrow,” Wall Street Journal, December 28, 2014, 1.
16. PRNewswire, “Creative State Programs Help Charter Schools Shift Millions of Dollars to Core Education Needs as They Build and Expand, Says New National Study,” July 22, 2015.
17. Bruce D. Baker, “Picture Post Week: Subprime Chartering,” School Finance 101 (blog), December 10, 2015, https://schoolfinance101.wordpress.com/2015/12/10/picture-post-week-subprime-chartering/.
18. Mccambridge, “Hedge Funds.”
19. Diane Ravitch discusses this briefly in Reign of Error (New York: Knopf, 2013).
20. Darcia Harris Bowman, “Charters Hit by Facilities Funding Woes,” Education Week, November 8, 2000, 1.
21. On evidence that competition pressure does not benefit public schooling, see, e.g., the work of Sharon Nichols, David Berliner, and Gene Glass, “High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?,” Education Policy Analysis Archives 14 (2006), https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/72.
22. I review these studies in Saltman, Failure of Corporate School Reform.
23. Juan Gonzalez, “Hedge Fund Execs’ Money for Charter Schools May Pay Off,” New York Daily News, March 11, 2015, and Paul Perry, “A Building Boom for Charter Schools Is Coming. Guess Who’s Footing the Bill?,” Inside Philanthropy, August 9, 2016, https://www.insidephilanthropy.com/charter-schools/2016/8/9/a-building-boom-for-charter-schools-is-coming-guess-whos-foo.html.
24. Wiggin, “Charter School Gravy Train.”
27. The tendency of charters to have repressive pedagogical models relates to the fact that charters target working-class and poor nonwhite communities. Charters make the most inroads into communities that have historically suffered the worst public disinvestment and can’t get a foot in the door in rich communities with lavishly funded public schools. The repressive pedagogies characteristic of charters are implicated in social and cultural reproduction—in producing different subjects with different dispositions for their future expected place in the economy. Studies in post-Katrina New Orleans’s four charter networks confirm this, showing that the pedagogical approaches correspond to the class positions of the students. See Frank Adamson, Channa Cook-Harvey, and Linda Darling-Hammond, “Whose Choice? Student Experiences and Outcomes in the New Orleans School Marketplace,” SCOPE Research Brief, September 2015, https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/scope-brief-student-experiencesneworleans.pdf. I discuss recent turns toward repressive pedagogy and the implication of the charter movement and privatization in it in Kenneth Saltman, Scripted Bodies: Corporate Power, Smart Technologies, and the Undoing of Public Education (New York: Routledge, 2016).
28. Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed; Erich Fromm, Escape from Freedom (New York: Holt, 1941).
29. Kathleen Morris, “The Reincarnation of Mike Milken,” Businessweek, May 10, 1999; Kenneth Saltman, “Junk King Education,” Cultural Studies 16, no. 2 (2002): 233–58.
30. See Henry Giroux, Against the Terror of Neoliberalism (New York: Routledge, 2015).
31. Coverage of Legend’s response is available at http://www.essence.com/news/john-legend-charter-public-schools-naacp.
32. The NAACP position on charter schools and their research can be accessed at http://www.naacp.org/campaigns/naacp-plan-action-charter-schools/.
33. See education author Jose Luis Vilson’s insightful blog post about John Legend’s corporatist advocacy and how only in education can celebrity voices drown out informed policy and research, “John Legend and the Well-Meaning Corporatists,” JLV (blog), March 13, 2013, http://thejosevilson.com/john-legend-and-the-well-meaning-corporatists/.
34. Diddy designed his school with a relentlessly self-promoting educational privatization and union-busting television personality who goes by “Dr. Steve Perry.” Dr. Perry, who has been subject to numerous calls for investigation, received his doctorate in education at the University of Hartford, where his dissertation was directed by an adjunct. http://wnpr.org/post/hartford-board-education-chairman-calls-investigation-principal-steve-perry; http://citylimits.org/2015/03/13/hartford-to-harlem-charter-school-faces-critics-back-home/.
35. See Hall, Representation; Herman Grey, Watching Race: Television and the Struggle for Blackness (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004).
36. See Saltman, Collateral Damage.
37. Nicole Nguyen, A Curriculum of Fear: Homeland Security in U.S. Public Schools (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2016).
38. Saltman, Gift of Education.
39. See Daniel Lautzenheiser and Andrew Kelly, “Charter Schools as Nation Builders,” AEI Program on American Citizenship Policy Brief 4, January 2013, http://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/-charter-schools-as-nation-builders-democracy-prep-and-civic-education_155611749016.pdf.
40. About 23 percent of charter school students complete a four-year university program. See the National Student Clearninghouse Research Center report High School Benchmarks 2015: National College Progression Rates, https://nscresearchcenter.org/hsbenchmarks2015/. This contrasts with a 59 percent four-year completion rate for U.S. students overall, according to the National Center for Educational Statistics report Graduation Rates for Selected Cohorts at https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017084.pdf.
41. Pierre Bourdieu, “The Forms of Capital,” in Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, ed. J. Richardson, trans. Richard Nice, 46–58 (New York: Greenwood, 1986).
42. Angela Nagle, Kill All Normies (Washington, D.C.: Zero Books, 2017).