I am grateful for a faculty fellowship in the Institute for the Humanities Faculty Fellowship at the University of Michigan, which afforded me the time and resources to complete this book. The project benefited significantly from the superb research assistance of Yeshua Tolle, Dylan Volk, and Elizabeth McNeill. I thank Marq Smith and Manca Bajec and my anonymous reviewers for their generous and detailed feedback on an earlier article version that appeared in Journal of Visual Culture. These ideas gained coherence in dialogue with audiences at the Association for the Study of the Arts of the Present (ASAP) conference, the UM Department of English (special thanks to “Critical Conversations” organizers Katherine Hummel and Hayley O’Malley), and a UM Digital Studies Institute research workshop. I am deeply appreciative of those friends and colleagues who engaged with and offered encouragement for these ideas along the way: Johanna Gosse, Kris Cohen, Erica Levin, Sarah Ensor, Henry Cowles, Ingrid Diran, Jim Hodge, Patrick Jagoda, Peggy McCracken, Alex Pittman, Annie McClanahan, Danny Marcus, Sam McCracken, Cengiz Salman, Manan Desai, Justin Joque, Charlotte Karem Albrecht, Megan Ankerson, Abhishek Narula, Jasmine An, Silvia Lindtner, Sarah Murray, Osman Khan, and Kelly Wheeler. I am especially indebted to Lindsay Thomas for her outstanding engagement with the manuscript at multiple stages. Special thanks to artists Hank Willis Thomas, Cameron Rowland, Amanda Williams, and Object Orange for granting me permission to reproduce their work in the Manifold version and to these artists’ representatives: Rebecca Chang of Jack Shainman Gallery, Maxwell Graham of Essex Street Gallery, Bianca Marks of Marks On Canvas agency, and Paul Kotula of Paul Kotula Projects, respectively. I thank Michael Rakowitz and M. Carmen Lane (on behalf of A Color Removed) and Greg (last name redacted) (on behalf of Object Orange) for generously agreeing to be interviewed for this book. These pages are vastly better for the considerable talents of editors Heath Sledge and Kim Greenwell. I am grateful for the University of Minnesota Press’s support of this project and am particularly indebted to Leah Pennywark for guiding this book to press and to Anne Carter for all of her help along the way. Additional gratitude to the Minnesota team is in order: my thanks to Scott Mueller, who copyedited this book, to Terence Smyre, who typeset and saw the book to print and online, and to Mike Stoffel, who saw it through production. Most of all, I thank Antoine Traisnel, for his significant contributions to and tireless support of this book. Any royalties from its sale will be donated to support organizations advocating for community-based solutions to state violence.