Sarah Gram, “The Young-Girl and the Selfie,” Textual Relations (blog), March 1, 2013, http://text-relations.blogspot.com/2013/03/the-young-girl-and-selfie.html.
Alex McQuilkin, pers. comm., July 19, 2017.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl, trans. Ariana Reines (Los Angeles, Calif.: Semiotext(e), 2012), 34.
Etymonline, s.v. “provocation (n.),” https://www.etymonline.com/word/provocation.
Their name, which is also the title of the journal in which they originally published their work, is a gallicization of part of the Hebrew phrase tikkun olam, which means “repair of the world.” While the names of some members can be located online, we will not provide them, in an acknowledgment of the political statement made by pseudonymity.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 21.
Lara Glenum, “Welcome to the Gurlesque: The New Grrly, Grotesque, Burlesque Poetics,” Jacket Magazine 40 (July 2010), http://jacketmagazine.com/40/glenum-gurlesque.shtml.
Cherilyn Parsons, “A Theory of the Young-Girl,” Truthdig, November 22, 2013, https://www.truthdig.com/articles/a-theory-of-the-young-girl/.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 15.
Tiqqun, 12, 24, 43.
Heather Warren-Crow, Girlhood and the Plastic Image (Lebanon, N.H.: Dartmouth College Press, 2014), 66–68.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 114.
Siegfried Kracauer, “The Mass Ornament,” in The Mass Ornament: Weimar Essays (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995), 75.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 39.
Qtd. in “Geldof’s Grim Beatles Memory,” Express, August 26, 2010, https://www.express.co.uk/celebrity-news/195704/Geldof-s-grim-Beatles-memory.
André Millard, Beatlemania: Technology, Business, and Teen Culture in Cold War America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012), 134.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 126.
Les Antigones, “Femen or the rebellitude of the state,” Antigones (blog), July 23, 2013, https://lesantigones.fr/femen-ou-la-rebellitude-detat/.
Les Antigones, “Femininity, Fuel of Turbo-Capitalism,” Antigones (blog), October 12, 2013, https://lesantigones.fr/la-feminite-carburant-du-turbo-capitalisme/.
Qtd. in Angelique Chrisafis, “Femen Inspired Postage Stamp Angers French Right,” Guardian, July 15, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/15/femen-postage-stamp-france.
Les Antigones, “The Manifesto of the Antigones,” YouTube video, 3:13, June 10, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_o-LLGpQiG4.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 20.
Catherine Driscoll, “The Mystique of the Young-Girl,” Feminist Theory 14, no. 3 (2013): 285–94; jonny, September 30, 2014, comment on Thomas More, “The Manipulated Man, a Holy Bible of Red Pill Wisdom,” Return of Kings, September 23, 2014, https://www.returnofkings.com/42941/the-manipulated-man-a-holy-bible-of-red-pill-wisdom; “About,” Return of Kings, https://www.returnofkings.com/about.
Martial, “Principle Red Pill #20: Le principle of the Jeune Fille,” Neo-Masculin (blog), January 11, 2018, https://neo-masculin.com/principe-pilule-rouge-20-principe-de-jeune-fille/. The term red pill, a reference to The Matrix (1999), is associated with the manosphere.
Qtd. in Sophie Williams, “The Wants on Recording Their Debut Album in a Shipping Container,” Guitar, April 8, 2020, https://guitar.com/features/interviews/the-wants-playing-guitars-like-bass-recording-debut-album/; Emilie Friedlander, “What We’re Reading: Emilie Friedlander,” Fader, August 9, 2013, https://www.thefader.com/2013/08/09/what-were-reading-emilie-friedlander-3/.
Judith Cahen, “À nos corps défendants: Based on Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl, by Tiqqun,” Studylib, https://studylibfr.com/doc/6796038/atelier-de-cr%C3%A9ation-radiophonique-%E2%80%93-dossier-de.
Miles Bowe, “Hannah Diamond—‘Attachment,’” Stereogum, April 24, 2014, https://www.stereogum.com/1678098/hannah-diamond-attachment/news/; qtd. in Dominique Sisley, “The Books That Changed My Life,” Dazed Digital, March 8, 2016, http://www.dazeddigital.com/artsandculture/article/30259/1/the-books-that-changed-my-life.
Fiona Duncan, “I Love Dick on TV: Chris Kraus’ Advice for a Young-Girl,” SSense, https://www.ssense.com/en-us/editorial/culture/i-love-dick-on-tv.
Miriam Kongstad, “Hit Me Baby One More Time,” https://sandberg.nl/thesis/miriam-kongstad; Clint Burnham, Does the Internet Have an Unconscious? Slavoj Žižek and Digital Culture (New York: Bloomsbury, 2018), 62.
Burnham, Does the Internet Have an Unconscious?, 64.
Warren-Crow, Girlhood and the Plastic Image, 72.
Heather Warren-Crow, “Gossip Girl Goes to the Gallery: Bernadette Corporation and Digitextuality,” Performance Research: A Journal of the Performing Arts 18, no. 5 (2013): 108–19.
Theory of the Young-Girl (blog), https://theoryoftheyoung-girl.tumblr.com/; “Tiqqun” (affect trance), “Preliminary Materials towards a Theory of the Young-Girl,” 2013, https://soundcloud.com/affecttrance/feel001.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 20.
Jen Kennedy, “The Young-Girl in Theory,” Women and Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory 25, no. 2 (2015): 175.
Catherine Driscoll, “The Mystique of the Young-Girl,” Feminist Theory 14, no. 3 (2013): 285.
Rowland Akinduro, “A Good Book in Your Collection,” review of Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl by Tiqqun, Amazon, January 11, 2016, https://www.amazon.com/Preliminary-Materials-Young-Girl-Semiotext-Intervention/product-reviews/158435108X.
Qtd. in “What We’re Reading: Summer Edition, Volume II,” New Yorker, July 5, 2013, https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/what-were-reading-summer-edition-volume-ii.
Toni, review of Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl by Tiqqun, Goodreads, July 25, 2012, http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/14367458-preliminary-materials-for-a-theory-of-the-young-girl.
Ariana Reines, “Translator’s Note,” Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl, Triple Canopy, May 22, 2012, https://www.canopycanopycanopy.com/contents/preliminary_materials_for_a_theory_of_the_young_girl; Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 120; Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenburg Galaxy (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011), 36.
Jean-Laurent Cassely, “The Wearing of a Thong and Lowcut Jeans in the Neoliberal Environment,” Slate France, December 26, 2011, http://www.slate.fr/story/47169/theorisation-string-jean-taille-basse-milieu-neoliberal.
Adam Morris, “Drone Warfare: Tiqqun, the Young-Girl and the Imperialism of the Trivial,” Los Angeles Review of Books, September 30, 2012, https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/drone-warfare-tiqqun-the-young-girl-and-the-imperialism-of-the-trivial/.
Moira Weigel and Mal Ahern, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Man-Child,” The New Inquiry, July 9, 2013, https://thenewinquiry.com/further-materials-toward-a-theory-of-the-man-child/.
Weigel and Ahern.
Melissa Frost, review of Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl by Tiqqun, Goodreads, December 1, 2014, https://www.goodreads.com/en/book/show/14367458-preliminary-materials-for-a-theory-of-the-young-girl.
Mike Bulajewski, “What Comes after the Man-Child?,” Meta Reader (blog), July 22, 2013, http://www.metareader.org/post/what-comes-after-the-man-child.html.
Kennedy, “Young-Girl in Theory,” 178.
This blog has disappeared, but we like the quotation enough to keep it without the citation.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 103, 85.
Jeff Nagy, “A Little Brooke of Visions,” BOMB, September 26, 2012, https://bombmagazine.org/articles/a-little-brooke-of-visions/.
McKenzie Wark, The Spectacle of Disintegration: Situationist Passages out of the 20th Century (London: Verso, 2013), 196.
Weigel and Ahern, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Man-Child”; Tatiana Zhurzhenko, “The Importance of Being Earnest: Putin, Trump and the Politics of Sincerity,” Eurozine, February 26, 2018, https://www.eurozine.com/importance-earnest-putin-trump-politics-sincerity/.
Warren-Crow, Girlhood and the Plastic Image, 73.
Reines, “Translator’s Note.”
Jennifer Boyd, “A Theory for the Strange-Girl: Raw Red Text,” Country Music, August 2017, https://www.country-music.co/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/CM2-JenniferBoyd.pdf.
Kennedy, “Young-Girl in Theory,” 180.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 14.
Etymonline, s.v. “noise (n.),” https://www.etymonline.com/word/noise; Bistrot des Gentilshommes, “Inside the Brain of Young Girls: The Hamster—Lumière Rouge #3,” YouTube video, 29:45, April 17, 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oAqtON3QNGY.
Michel Serres, Genesis (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005), 7.
Nina Power, “She’s Just Not That into You,” Radical Philosophy 177, no. 1 (2013), https://www.radicalphilosophy.com/reviews/individual-reviews/rp177-shes-just-not-that-into-you.
Nagy, “A Little Brooke of Visions.”
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 40.
Kennedy, “Young-Girl in Theory,” 185.
Terrence Thompson, “Moon Unit Zappa Full Show,” YouTube video, 6:40, December 7, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mOHHwwqAN5s.
Mareile Pfannebecker and J. A. Smith, Work Want Work: Labor and Desire at the End of Capitalism (London: Zed Books, 2020), 89.
Marshall McLuhan, “The Agenbite of Outwit,” McLuhan Studies, no. 2 (1996), http://projects.chass.utoronto.ca/mcluhan-studies/v1_iss2/1_2art6.htm.
McLuhan; Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 20.
Hadrian, review of Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl, Goodreads, https://www.goodreads.com/en/book/show/14367458-preliminary-materials-for-a-theory-of-the-young-girl.
Kathleen M. Gough, “The Art of the Loop, Analogy, Aurality, History, Performance,” Drama Review 60, no. 1 (2016): 94.
healthcarefuture, “Marshall McLuhan—The World Is a Global Village (CBC TV),” YouTube video, 8:44, March 24, 2009, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HeDnPP6ntic.
Paul Benedetti and Nancy DeHart, eds., On McLuhan: Forward through the Rearview Mirror (Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice-Hall Canada, 1997), 40.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 120.
Ross Brown, Sound Effect: The Theatre We Hear (New York: Bloomsbury, 2020), 133.
Ginger Nolan, The Neocolonialism of the Global Village (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2018), 1, 2.
The Canadian provenance of the theory of auditory space suggests its particular applicability to late twentieth-/early twenty-first-century Anglophone and Francophone milieux, given Canada’s dual national languages. More specifically, McLuhan had a famously enthusiastic reception in France, which saw the “McLuhanization of French intellectuals and media workers interested and operating in creative communications and media environments,” in part through coverage by Québécois journalists in the 1960s and 1970s and the influence of McLuhanisme among French theorists of the 1980s and 1990s who function as direct forebears of Tiqqun, such as Jean Baudrillard and Paul Virilio. Gary Genosko, McLuhan and Baudrillard: Masters of Implosion (New York: Routledge, 1999), 1.
Edmund Carpenter and Marshall McLuhan, “Television Murders Telephony,” in Verbi-Voco-Visual Explorations 8: Studies in Culture and Communication, ed. Edmund Carpenter and Marshall McLuhan (Eugene, Oreg.: WIPF and Stock, 2016), 61.
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, “Echo,” New Literary History 24, no. 1 (1993): 38.
Rafaela Lopez and Georgia René-Worms, “Bubble Boom, the Jeune-Fille said: a bit of bubble and a little bit of boom,” https://rafaelalopez.net/Bubble-Boom.
Henri Lefebvre, Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time and Everyday Life (London: Continuum, 2004), 90.
Ben Glaser, introduction to Critical Rhythm: The Poetics of a Literary Life Form, ed. Ben Glaser and Jonathan Culler (New York: Fordham University Press, 2019), 2; theoryoftheyoung-girl (blog), https://theoryoftheyoung-girl.tumblr.com/.
David Nowell Smith, “What Is Called Rhythm?,” in Glaser and Culler, Critical Rhythm, 43–44.
Power, “She’s Just Not That into You.”
Julien Meilland and Kevin Driscoll, Minitel: Welcome to the Internet (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2017), 1. See this book for a detailed account of the development and promotion of Minitel.
Alex McQuilkin, pers. comm., May 31, 2020.
Le Bureau de L’APA, “Death and the Jeune-Fille,” https://www.bureaudelapa.com/en/projetsliste-apa.php; Griffin Art Projects, “Reading Group: Performativity as Technique of the Self,” December 8, 2018, http://griffinartprojects.ca/pastevents/2018/performativity-reading/; Dorota Halina Gawęda, Eglė Kulbokaitė, and Lucie Kolb, “The Young-Girl Reading Group: An Email Interview,” Brand-New-Life, June 24, 2016, http://brand-new-life.org/b-n-l/ygrg/.
mitsn437, “What Is Net and Post-Internet Art,” Maps Territories and Location Art, Now and Then (blog), September 17, 2014, https://mitsn437.wordpress.com/2014/09/17/what-is-post-internet-art/.
Nicholas Thoburn, Anti-Book: On the Art and Politics of Radical Publishing (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2016), 204.
Charlotte Frost, Art Criticism Online: A History (Canterbury, U.K.: Gylphi, 2019), 106–7.
Frost, 106, 109.
For example, in one translation, Narcissus spits out, “Take your hands off! I’ll die before I let you have me!” and Echo responds, “Have me!” See Almut-Barbara Renger, “Narrating Narcissus, Reflecting Cognition: Illusion, Disillusion, ‘Self-Cognition’ and ‘Love as Passion’ in Ovid and Beyond,” Frontiers of Narrative Studies 3, no. 1 (2017), https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/fns-2017-0002/html.
In a reading of Ovid’s myth, Claire Nouvet understands the “Disaster of Narcissus” as ultimately the primal condition of the Subject. See Nouvet, “An Impossible Response: The Disaster of Narcissus,” Yale French Studies 79 (1991): 103–34.
Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis, “Why Repetition Can Turn Almost Anything into Music,” Aeon, March 7, 2014, https://aeon.co/essays/why-repetition-can-turn-almost-anything-into-music.
Martin Ewell, “Finders Keepers: This Is Just to Say . . . Pound Never Went Viral!,” Found Poetry Review, July 26, 2015, http://www.foundpoetryreview.com/blog/finders-keepers-this-is-just-to-say/.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 17, 92.
Stacey Teague, “Female Young Messiah,” in The Young-Girls Gaze at Soma Contemporary (Waterford, Ireland: Soma Contemporary Gallery, 2014), 46, https://issuu.com/aoifeodwyer/docs/bunny_catalogue1.
Ben Zimmer, “Iterate,” New York Times Magazine, June 13, 2010, https://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/13/magazine/13FOB-onlanguage-t.html.
Jean Burgess, “‘All Your Chocolate Rain Are Belong to Us?’: Viral Video, YouTube and the Dynamics of Participatory Culture,” in Video Vortex Reader: Responses to YouTube, ed. Geert Lovink and Sabine Niederer (Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures, 2008), 108.
Power, “She’s Just Not That into You.”
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 14, 15, 62, 70, 71, 96, 131, 131.
Megan Arlett, “A Preliminary Theory on Kissing,” Pinch, November 15, 2019, http://www.pinchjournal.com/cnfpinch/2019/11/15/a-preliminary-theory-on-kissing-by-megan-arlett.
“Tiqqun” (affect trance), “Preliminary Materials towards a Theory of the Young-Girl.”
Robert Hariman, Political Style: The Artistry of Power (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 4.
Daniel Hartley, The Politics of Style: Towards a Marxist Poetics (Leiden, Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill, 2017), 16.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 113, 105.
Marshall McLuhan, “The Agenbite of Outwit,” McLuhan Studies 1, no. 2 (1996), http://projects.chass.utoronto.ca/mcluhan-studies/v1_iss2/1_2art6.htm.
Arlett, “A Preliminary Theory on Kissing.”
Samantha Conlon, “i pledge allegiance to the young-girl,” Samantha Conlon, http://www.samanthaconlon.com/i-pledge-allegiance-to-the-young-girl/.
Key quotations from Preliminary Materials include “When she loses the possibility of re-entering the marketplace, she begins to rot” and “The Young-Girl is an optical illusion.” Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 88, 45.
Gram, “The Young-Girl and the Selfie.”
Lopez and René-Worms, “Bubble Boom.”
Lopez and René-Worms; Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 84.
Thoburn, Anti-Book, 222.
Kathryn O’Reagan, “Cyber-sisterhood: Introducing Bunny Collective,” in The Young-Girls Gaze at Soma Contemporary, 5, https://issuu.com/aoifeodwyer/docs/bunny_catalogue1.
O’Reagan, 4, 7.
Teague, “Female Young Messiah,” 46.
Samantha Conlon, “The Young-Girl Declares War,” in The Young-Girl’s Gaze at Soma Contemporary, 17, https://issuu.com/aoifeodwyer/docs/bunny_catalogue1; Teague, “Female Young Messiah,” 47.
Shia Conlon, “The Young-Girl Blames Herself,” Vimeo video, 4:51, 2014, https://vimeo.com/93072906.
Olivier Choinière, Manifeste de la Jeune-Fille (Montreal: Atelier 10, 2017); “Manifeste de la Jeune-Fille,” Espace Go, https://espacego.com/archives/2016-2017/manifeste-de-la-jeune-fille/.
Nicolas Bourriaud, Postproduction (New York: Lukas and Sternberg, 2002), 28–33.
Weigel and Ahern, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Man-Child”; artist Audrey Wollen explains the connection between her Sad Girl Theory and Preliminary Materials in a no longer extant interview formerly available at http://www.cultistzine.com/2014/06/19/cult-talk-audrey-wollen-on-sad-girl-theory/; Hannah Black, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Hot Babe,” New Inquiry, July 15, 2013, https://thenewinquiry.com/further-materials-toward-a-theory-of-the-hot-babe/; Alicia Eler, “Now Accepting Materials toward a Theory of the Adult-Man,” Hyperallergic, July 16, 2013, https://hyperallergic.com/75487/now-accepting-materials-toward-a-theory-of-the-adult-man/; Rob Horning, “Hi Haters!,” New Inquiry, November 27, 2012, http://www.thenewinquiry.com/hi-haters.
Frost, Art Criticism Online: A History, 188.
Weigel and Ahern, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Man-Child.”
Marquaysa Battle, “Signs Your ‘Woke Bae’ Is Actually a Fuckboy in Disguise,” Elite Daily, March 14, 2017, https://www.elitedaily.com/women/woke-bae-fuck-boy-dating-signs/1824890.
Weigel and Ahern, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Man-Child.”
Weigel and Ahern.
Tyler Bickford, “Justin Bieber, YouTube and New Media Celebrity: The Tween Prodigy at Home and Online,” in Musical Prodigies: Interpretations from Psychology, Education, Musicology and Ethnomusicology, ed. Gary E. McPherson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 763.
Jude Ellison Sadie Doyle, “The Pixies Enter the Realm of the Man-Child,” In These Times, July 10, 2013, https://inthesetimes.com/article/the-pixies-bagboy-video-and-indie-rock-privilege.
Anicka Yi, Jordan Lord, Lise Soskolne, and Carissa Rodriguez, The Politics of Friendship (Zurich: Studiolo, 2013), http://s3.amazonaws.com/contemporaryartgroup/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/politics-of-friendshipweb.pdf.
Yi et al.
Kari Rittenbach, “Anicka Yi: Narratives of Scent and Material Decay,” Frieze, January 11, 2013, https://www.frieze.com/article/anicka-yi.
Anna North, “The Disturbing Story behind the Rape Scene in Bernardo Bertolucci’s Last Tango in Paris, Explained,” Vox, November 26, 2018, https://www.vox.com/2018/11/26/18112531/bernardo-bertolucci-maria-schneider-last-tango-in-paris.
Soskolne, untitled, in Yi et al., Politics of Friendship.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 88.
Mike Bulajewski, “What Comes after the Man-Child?,” Meta Reader (blog), July 22, 2013, http://www.metareader.org/post/what-comes-after-the-man-child.html; Critila, “Mind the Dash,” Anvil Review, December 19, 2013, https://theanvilreview.org/print/mind-the-dash/.
Critila, “Mind the Dash.” Tumblr user Tremblebot also defends Preliminary Materials by connecting it to the work of Deleuze and Guattari: “The theory of the Young-Girl articulated has nothing to do with actually being a young girl much like becoming-woman or becoming-wasp has nothing to do with being a wasp or a woman. The Young-Girl is an attractor, a molarity, and [sic] orientation and orienting figure.” Tremblebot, “Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl,” Tremblings (blog), May 26, 2012, http://tremblebot.tumblr.com/post/23806488132/preliminary-thoughts-on-materials-for-a-young-girl.
zoo, July 9, 2013, comment on GameDesignerBen, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Man-Child,” Metafilter (blog), July 9, 2013, https://www.metafilter.com/129823/Further-Materials-Toward-a-Theory-of-the-ManChild.
boo_radley, July 9, 2013, comment on GameDesignerBen, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Man-Child.”
ennui.bz, July 9, 2013, comment on GameDesignerBen, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Man-Child.”
Dominic Jones, “‘Further Materials toward a Theory of the Man-Child’: For White People, by White People,” in Yi et al., Politics of Friendship.
Jaleh Mansoor, “Notes on Militant Folds,” Hostis, 2018, 1–2, http://incivility.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Mansoor-Militant-Folds.pdf.
Black, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Hot Babe.”
Heather Warren-Crow, “Screaming Like a Girl: Viral Video and the Work of Reaction,” Feminist Media Studies 16, no. 6 (2016): 1113–16; Black, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Hot Babe.”
“15: L’Oréal (1971)—because I’m Worth It,” Creative Review, https://www.creativereview.co.uk/because-im-worth-it-loreal/.
The connection to Preliminary Materials is effectively substantiated in a review that quotes extensively from Tiqqun’s text. peer2peer, review of Because I’m Worth It by Inga Copeland, Rate Your Music, August 20, 2018, https://rateyourmusic.com/release/album/copeland/because-im-worth-it.p/.
trollsofperception, “Inga Copeland—because I’m Worth It,” YouTube video, 2:41, August 4, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXngqUh4MiA.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 45.
Black, “Further Materials toward a Theory of the Hot Babe.”
Gilles Châtelet, “A Martial Art of Metaphor: Two Interviews with Gilles Châtelet,” Urbanomic, https://www.urbanomic.com/document/gilles-chatelet-mental-ecology/.
Boyd, “A Theory for the Strange-Girl.”
McKenzie Wark, Telesthesia: Communication, Culture, and Class (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2012), 11.
Megan Arlett, “A Preliminary Theory on Kissing,” The Pinch, November 15, 2019, http://www.pinchjournal.com/cnf-blogroll/2019/11/15/a-preliminary-theory-on-kissing-by-megan-arlett.
“chant (n.)” and “chant (v.),” Etymonline, accessed February 25, 2021, https://www.etymonline.com/word/chant#etymonline_v_44063; “*kan-,” Etymonline, accessed February 25, 2021, https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kan-#etymonline_v_53174.
“cant,” Etymonline, accessed March 5, 2021, https://www.etymonline.com/word/cant#etymonline_v_53175; “cant,” Dictionary, accessed February 25, 2021, https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cant?s=t.
Patricia Howell Michaelson, Speaking Volumes: Women, Reading, and Speech in the Age of Austen (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2002), 144.
Boyd, “A Theory for the Strange-Girl.”
Qtd. in Julian Hanna, “Manifestos: A Manifesto,” Atlantic, June 24, 2014, https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2014/06/manifestos-a-manifesto-the-10-things-all-manifestos-need/372135/.
Kennedy, “Young-Girl in Theory,” 185.
Walter Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London: Routledge, 2002), 34.
Qtd. in John Walter, “Ong on Secondary Orality and Secondary Literacy,” Notes from the Walter J. Ong Archive (blog), July 16, 2006, http://johnwalter.blogspot.com/2006/07/ong-on-secondary-orality-and-secondary.html. We believe the original citation is indeed the following, although we could not locate this publication: M. Kleine and F. Gale, “The Elusive Presence of the Word: An Interview with Walter Ong,” Composition FORUM 7, no. 2 (1996): 65–86.
Bonnie Stewart, “Collapsed Publics: Orality, Literacy, and Vulnerability in Academic Twitter,” Journal of Applied Social Theory 1, no. 1 (2016): 73.
Warren-Crow, “Gossip Girl Goes to the Gallery,” 112.
Chelsea Ritschel, “VSCO Girl: Where Did ‘And I oop’ and ‘sksksk’ come from?,” Independent, November 25, 2019, https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/vsco-girl-and-i-oop-sksksk-meaning-tiktok-instagram-save-the-turtles-a9123956.html.
Lauren Strapagiel, “Like Most Slang, ‘Sksksksk’ Originated in Black and LGBTQ Communities,” BuzzFeed, August 29, 2019, https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/laurenstrapagiel/this-is-why-vsco-girls-keep-saying-sksksksk. For information on blackness and internet culture, see Laur M. Jackson, “The Blackness of Meme Movement,” Model View Culture, March 28, 2016, https://modelviewculture.com/pieces/the-blackness-of-meme-movement.
“American Slang: Valspeak,” Language Dossier, https://language-dossier.webs.com/americanslangvalspeak.htm.
Giselle Bastin, “Pandora’s Voice-Box: How Woman Became the ‘Gossip Girl,’” in Women and Language: Essays on Gendered Communication across Media, ed. Melissa Ames and Sarah Himsel Burcon (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2011), 18.
David Machin and Theo van Leeuwen, “Language Style and Lifestyle: The Case of a Global Magazine,” Media, Culture, and Society 27, no. 4 (2005): 578.
Machin and van Leeuwen, 588–92.
Le Bureau de L’APA, “Death and the Jeune-Fille,” https://www.bureaudelapa.com/en/projetsliste-apa.php; “La Jeune-Fille et la Mort (Death and the Young-Girl),” EMPAC, 2013, https://empac.rpi.edu/events/2013/la-jeune-fille-et-la-mort-death-and-young-girl.
Le Bureau de L’APA, “La Jeune-Fille et la Mort (Death and the Young-Girl),” video recording of performance, Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center, Troy, N.Y., October 2013.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 141.
Angry Brigade, “Biba’s Was Bombed,” International Times 1, no. 104 (May 19, 1971), 5.
Alexandre Cadieux, “Trash dramaturgie,” Le Devoir, October 17, 2012.
aqnb, “YGRG’s Outlouding of Words + Intimacy in 14x Performance ‘Reading with a Single Hand’ at Baltic Triennial,” December 8, 2017, https://www.aqnb.com/2017/12/08/ygrgs-outlouding-of-words-intimacy-in-14x-performance-reading-with-a-single-hand-at-baltic-triennial/.
Jodi Dean, “Communicative Capitalism and Class Struggle,” Spheres: Journal for Digital Culture 1 (2014): 4; Dean, “Communicative Capitalism: Circulation and the Foreclosure of Politics,” Cultural Politics 1, no. 1 (2005): 61.
Paul Michelman, “Why the Human Voice Is the Year’s Most Important Technology,” MIT Sloan Management Review, January 20, 2017, https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/why-the-human-voice-is-the-years-most-important-technology/.
Urban Dictionary, s.v. “shiterate,” January 18, 2018, https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=shiterate.
Gilles Deleuze, “Postscript on the Societies of Control,” October 59 (Winter 1992): 4.
Marshall McLuhan, Verbi-Voco-Visual Explorations (New York: Something Else Press, 1967).
Carlos, “Introduction to a Theory of the Young Girl,” YouTube video, 5:12, June 11, 2009, https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=160&v=BAKGEXQUymo.
Michel Chion, The Voice in Cinema (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 21. Elsewhere in the book, Chion contradicts himself by saying that this kind of voice-over narration is not an acousmêtre, which requires that the speaker in question, “even if only slightly, have one foot in the image, in the space of the film.” Nonetheless, the description of the power of the disembodied voice of the narrator of “Introduction to a Theory of the Young Girl” still holds (24).
Ned Ludd, “Ned Ludd,” YouTube channel, https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCScm9u8imX-988B0QGlNUtw/videos.
Those interested in the songs, letters, and other writings attributed to Ludd and the name’s iterations, such as General Ludd, Edward Ludd, King Ludd, and Eliza Ludd, should check out Kevin Binfield, Writings of the Luddites (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004).
Marco Deseriis, Improper Names: Collective Pseudonyms from the Luddites to Anonymous (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015), “Introduction: Genealogy and Theory of the Improper Name,” Kindle.
E. J. Hobsbawm, “The Machine Breakers,” Past and Present 1, no. 1 (1952): 66. While Ludd’s YouTube channel has a profile pic of a face, a thumbnail rendered in hypercolor with a green percentage sign on the bottom edge, this is not necessarily his own face, given the profile pic conventions of YouTube, nor is the face very legible. Regardless, the audiobook videos do not have visuals of Ludd reading. The reader remains in the dark.
Ned Ludd, “About,” YouTube channel, https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCScm9u8imX-988B0QGlNUtw/about.
Ned Ludd, comment on Ned Ludd, “Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl: The Young-Girl as Phenomenon,” YouTube video, 23:54, January 19, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pMZMWrRmh88.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 19.
Merriam Webster, s.v. “voice,” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/voice.
Madelyne Beckles, “Theory of the Young-Girl,” YouTube video, 4:20, July 21, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z9TdD7SG8HQ; Amanda Parris, “‘Feminism Is the New Black!’ Why One Artist Pokes Fun at Feminist Theory and Performative Activism,” CBC, January 25, 2018, https://www.cbc.ca/arts/feminism-is-the-new-black-why-one-artist-pokes-fun-at-feminist-theory-and-performative-activism-1.4504210.
José Esteban Muñoz, Disidentifications: Queers of Color and the Performance of Politics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), 3.
Naomi Wolf, “Young Women, Give Up the Vocal Fry and Reclaim Your Strong Female Voice,” Guardian, July 24, 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jul/24/vocal-fry-strong-female-voice.
Liana Van Nostrand, “Sounding Like a Reporter—and a Real Person, Too,” NPR, August 7, 2019, https://www.npr.org/sections/publiceditor/2019/08/07/749060986/sounding-like-a-reporter-and-a-real-person-too.
Kat Stoeffel, “How to Tweet Like a Girl,” Cut, February 19, 2013, https://www.thecut.com/2013/02/how-to-tweet-like-a-girl.html.
Thompson, “Moon Unit Zappa Full Show.”
Gilles Châtelet, To Live and Think Like Pigs: The Incitement of Envy and Boredom in Market Democracies (New York: Sequence Press, 2014), 102.
“bécasse,” Larousse, http://www.larousse.fr/dictionnaires/francais/bécasse/8550?q=bécasse#8496.
Lise Tannahill, “Bécassine, a Bande Dessinée Pioneer,” Studies in Comics 7, no. 2 (2016): 222. In 1979, the comic strip character inspired a corny pop song sung by Chantal Goya that rose to the top of the charts and has become part of a recognized cultural refrain. Ina Chansons, “Chantal Goya, ‘Bécassine,’” Archive INA, YouTube video, 2:42, March 7, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HC-sJ1TDZRg. The adaptations get political too. The spin-off character Pencassine has recurring appearances on the parody puppet show La Bébête Show as a mashup of the original Bécassine and the far-right politician Jean-Marie Le Pen. Benjamin Bayart, “Discours de Pencassine (remix),” YouTube video, 3:22, December 17, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kPG_r72HD60. The treatment of the Bécassine character has continually sown discord, most recently ahead of a 2018 film by Bruno Podalydès, when Bretons called for a boycott because of the way they are portrayed as backward and simple. Bruno Podalydès, Bécassine (Why Not Productions, 2018). Bécassine and her role as village idiot remain a contested version of provincial Frenchness, while also unveiling a more sinister aftershock of anti-immigrant France. INA France, “Bécassine, l’héroïne de la discorde,” video, 2:57, June 20, 2018, https://www.ina.fr/video/S737685_001/becassine-l-heroine-de-la-discorde-video.html.
Bécassine Turbo-Diesel has a partner in crime as she party-hardies for the free market: Cyber-Gideon (also called Gideon Cyber-Plus), named after a noodle-necked cartoon duck from the 1970s exported from France to the United Kingdom. In fact, Turbo-Bécassine usually appears in Châtelet’s screed with her male partner, who is equally condemnable. It is here that To Live and Think Like Pigs deviates from its contemporary relative, Preliminary Materials. Despite a similar commitment to the gesture of personification and to a freewheeling, affectively oriented writing style, To Live and Think Like Pigs directs its rhetoric at more than one conceptual persona. In other words, while Châtelet does gender his antagonists, he does not situate danger neatly within the feminized. Châtelet, To Live and Think Like Pigs, 99–112.
Châtelet, 104, 107.
Châtelet, 102–3. In the original French, the quote is “oui, enfin j’veux dire.” Gilles Châtelet, Vivre et penser comme des porcs: De l’incitation à l’envie et à l’ennui dans les démocraties-marchés (Paris: Exils Éditeur, 1998), 93.
solaristprojects, “Call Me Maybe,” YouTube video, 6:36, April 12, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=keCUUZKAj5k.
Both videos are edited together differently (side by side) in this video: YouTube Multiplier, “Call Me Maybe—Miami Dolphins Cheerleaders vs US Military,” YouTube video, 3:20, January 18, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7zdr-82WAo.
Jodi Dean, Blog Theory: Feedback and Capture in the Circuits of Drive (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2010), 2.
Josephine Livingstone, “Grow Up,” New Republic, June 12, 2017, https://newrepublic.com/article/143249/adult-women-infatuated-teenage-girls.
Marco Deseriis, “The People’s Mic as a Medium in Its Own Right: A Pharmacological Reading,” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies 11, no. 1 (2014): 48.
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, “Echo,” New Literary History 24, no. 1 (1993): 24.
Deseriis, “People’s Mic as a Medium in Its Own Right,” 42.
Rossana Reguillo, “Human Mic: Technologies for Democracy,” NACLA Report on the Americas 45, no. 3 (2012): 34.
Maurizio Lazzarato, Signs and Machines: Capitalism and the Production of Subjectivity (Los Angeles, Calif.: Semiotext(e), 2014), 182.
INA Société, “Nicolas Sarkozy et les banlieues,” YouTube video, 2:21, July 2, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTtcc5zIrDw.
Andrea Jonsson, “Graver le son de l’écriture slam: la voix banlieusarde urbatextuelle dans l’œuvre de Grand Corps Malade,” Modern and Contemporary France 28, no. 3 (2020): 7.
Laurent Greilsamer, “Le chiffre et le mot, par Laurent Greilsamer,” Le Monde, November 7, 2005, https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2005/11/07/le-chiffre-et-le-mot-par-laurent-greilsamer_707236_3232.html; Sheila Pulham, “Inflammatory Language,” Guardian, November 8, 2005, https://www.theguardian.com/news/blog/2005/nov/08/inflammatoryla.
Lazzarato, Signs and Machines, 183, 175.
For example, check out IOccupyFor, “Gov. Scott Walker Gets Checked, Mic Checked!,” YouTube video, 3:45, November 4, 2011, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1oHRdiklTlU.
redtornado, “Fracking Protesters Arrested at State Capital Jan. 9, 2020,” Yellowscene Magazine, January 11, 2020, https://yellowscene.com/2020/01/11/fracking-protesters-arrested-at-state-capitol-jan-9th-2020/; Hakim Bishara, “A Bronx Event Organized by New Museum Shut Down after Protest by Local Activists,” Hyperallergic, September 21, 2019, https://hyperallergic.com/518686/a-bronx-event-organized-by-new-museum-shut-down-after-protest-by-local-activists/; Callie Teitelbaum, “University Law Students Protest Paul, Weiss Recruiting Event in Support of #DropExxon Campaign,” Michigan Daily, February 19, 2020, https://www.michigandaily.com/section/campus-life/exxon-protest.
Omsk Social Club feat. PUNK IS DADA, May 12, 2015, https://punkisdada.tumblr.com/post/118778467347/meat-space-my-girlfriend-is-the-revolution.
Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 175–76.
Benjamin Franklin, “To Governor Franklin,” in The Works of Benjamin Franklin (Philadelphia: William Duane, 1809), 6:333.
Franklin, “To Noah Webster, Esq.,” in Works of Benjamin Franklin, 6:238.
Muriel Harris, “On Reading Aloud,” North American Review 214, no. 790 (1921): 348, 347.
“Young Girl Reading Group: Coming of Age,” Art in General, https://www.artingeneral.org/exhibitions/671.
Qtd. in River Young, “Manifesting Young-Girl Reading Group,” August 14, 2015, https://www.aqnb.com/2015/08/14/manifesting-young-girl-reading-group/.
Hannah Nussbaum, “A Techno-Feminist Reading List,” Tank Magazine, November 2017, https://tankmagazine.com/tank/2017/11/young-girl-reading-group/.
Anastasiia Fedorova, “Young Girl Reading Group: Preliminary Materials for the Future,” Perfect Number Mag, July 15, 2019, https://mag.perfectnumber.co/young-girl-reading-group-preliminary-materials-for-the-future/.
Gawęda qtd. in Fedorova.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 43.
Gawęda qtd. in Fedorova, “Young Girl Reading Group.”
Qtd. in Young, “Manifesting Young-Girl Reading Group”; McKenzie Wark, The Spectacle of Disintegration (London: Verso, 2013), 198.
Qtd. in Young, “Manifesting Young-Girl Reading Group.”
Julia Moritz, “P.S. YGRG #96,” Kunsthalle Zurich, September 30, 2015, http://kunsthallezurich.ch/en/articles/ps-ygrg-96.
Press release, Amanda Wilkinson Gallery, https://amandawilkinsongallery.com/usr/documents/exhibitions/press_release_url/69/ygrg-pr.pdf.
Gawęda et al., “Young-Girl Reading Group”; Marshall McLuhan, “Brainstorming: The Strange Case of Minerva’s Howl,” in Verbi-Voco-Visual Explorations.
“Bubble Boom,” Rafaela Lopez, https://rafaelalopez.net/Bubble-Boom.
Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide (New York: New York University Press, 2006), 2.
Grant McCracken, “‘Consumers’ or ‘Multipliers,’” Spreadable Media, https://spreadablemedia.org/essays/mccracken/index.html#.XyOZIiHPzOQ.
Thompson, “Moon Unit Zappa Full Show.”
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 25.
Movieclips, “They Live (1988)—Here to Chew Bubblegum and Kick Ass Scene (4/10) Movieclips,” YouTube video, 2:16, August 26, 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Du5YK5FnyF4.
Ella Plevin, “Dorota Gawęda and Eglė Kulbokaitė at Futura,” Art Viewer, October 28, 2019, https://artviewer.org/dorota-gaweda-and-egle-kulbokaite-at-futura/.
Gawęda et al., “Young-Girl Reading Group.”
Dorota Gawęda and Eglė Kulbokaitė qtd. in Lewon Heublein, “Permeable Screens: The Young-Girl Reading Group,” PW Magazine, June 12, 2019, https://www.pw-magazine.com/2019/permeable-screens-the-young-girl-reading-group/.
“YGRG Outlet: Eglė Kulbokaitė and Dorota Gawęda,” Cell Project Space, https://www.cellprojects.org/events/ygrg-outlet.
Julian Hanna, “Manifestos: A Manifesto,” Atlantic, June 24, 2014, https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2014/06/manifestos-a-manifesto-the-10-things-all-manifestos-need/372135/.
Young, “Manifesting Young-Girl Reading Group.”
Dictionary, s.v. “cant,” https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cant?s=t.
Heublein, “Permeable Screens.”
Qtd. in Young, “Manifesting Young-Girl Reading Group.”
3. Conclusion, or Fucking Up
Nesrine Khodr, email correspondence, June 10, 2020.
Nesrine Khodr, email correspondence, January 31, 2019.
Châtelet, To Live and Think Like Pigs, 102; Wolf, “Young Women, Give Up the Vocal Fry.”
Hélène Cixous, “The Laugh of the Medusa,” Signs 1, no. 4 (1976): 875–93.
Anca Parvulescu, Laughter: Notes on a Passion (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2010), 2.
Frost, Art Criticism Online, 106.
Jere, review of Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl by Tiqqun, Goodreads, February 2, 2015, https://www.goodreads.com/en/book/show/14367458-preliminary-materials-for-a-theory-of-the-young-girl.
Dean, Blog Theory, 2.
Paul B. Preciado, “On the Verge,” Artforum, July/August 2020, 95.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 15; Preciado, “On the Verge,” 95.
Preciado, “On the Verge,” 95.
Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1994), 5.
Preciado, “On the Verge,” 96.
Qtd. in Lauren Collins, “Assa Traoré and the Fight for Black Lives in France,” New Yorker, June 18, 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/news/letter-from-europe/assa-traore-and-the-fight-for-black-lives-in-france.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 105.
Révolution Permanente, “Discours poignant d’Assa Traoré. Justice pour Adama, George Floyd et toute victime de la police,” YouTube video, 22:24, June 2, 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_VZBiRnGcI.
Preciado, “On the Verge,” 101.
Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials, 16, 19.
“Biology of a Vampire,” Angelfire, http://www.angelfire.com/goth2/vampirestudies/biology.html/#:~:text=Vampire%20Blood%3A&text=Living-born%20vampires%20maintain%20a,that%20the%20body%20may%20function.
Heather Love, “Close but Not Deep: Literary Ethics and the Descriptive Turn,” New Literary History 41, no. 2 (2010): 388.
Châtelet, “A Martial Art of Metaphor.”
Urban Dictionary, s.v. “Vsco Girl,” https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=VSCO%20GIRL.