Index

Aarseth, Espen, 65, 94–95

abstract painting, 121–24

abusive games, 191, 300n10. See also masocore games

accessibility, 161

Adventure. See Colossal Cave Adventure

aesthetics, 146–50

After Finitude, 113

agon, 208, 225–26, 242

alternate reality games (ARGs), 287–28, 317n16, 340nn18–20

Ambassadors, The, 90–93, 95, 311n13, 312n14, 314n25

anamorphic games: definition of, 88, 99–100; examples of, 84, 313n22; as metagames, 115–16

anamorphosis: in The Ambassadors, 90–93, 95; definition, 88; and ergodic literature, 94–95; foreshortening, 89, 92; as memento mortem mortis, 93; normal sight as, 87; and perspective, 88–91, 93; in skulls, 95–97; subject positions, as critique of, 95; as unnatural, 89

animation (early history), 57–58, 307n53. See also hand of the animator

Anthropy, Anna, 31, 33, 149, 191, 300–301n12

Apple, 57–59, 81, 143, 179, 244, 310n8, 319n22, 337n57

Arabian Nights (Magic: The Gathering), 23–25, 298nn1–2

art games, 150, 301n14

Artosis. See Stemkoski, Daniel

Atari 2600, 303nn25–26

audiogames, 161

Baio, Andy, 29–30

Battle.net, 234, 308n55, 333n31

Blizzard, 62–63, 240–41. See also StarCraft; StarCraft II; Warcraft: Humans and Orcs; Warcraft III

Blow, Jonathan, 300n9. See also Braid

Bogost, Ian, 21, 35, 37, 79–80, 110, 114–15, 149, 166, 204, 282, 298n5, 298n6, 300n12, 301n14, 339n11

Braid, 28–31, 148, 299n3, 299n6

Butades, 84–87, 104, 130

Caillois, Roger, 98, 208, 226, 269

cane (metaphor), 164–65

Carlucci, Bruno “Statsman,” 255–58, 336n53

Carmack, John, 88, 285

cognition, distributed, 110

Colossal Cave Adventure, 165–66, 308n57

combinatorial poetics, 174

Connor, Steven, 125–26, 169–70, 208, 221, 225–27, 243, 255, 269, 335n47

consciousness, 4–5

console ban, China’s, 258–59, 331n18

controllers, videogame, 35–37, 40, 302n17, 315n26, 323n13

cosmetic markets, 266–67

countergaming, 150, 294n5

critical play, 38, 295n7. See also playculture

cuts (philosophical concept), 208, 225–26, 242, 270. See also grammatization

cutscenes, 134, 143–44

Day[9]. See Plott, Sean

Defense of the Ancients (Dota): history of, 233–40; popularity of, 218. See also Dota 2

DeLeon, Chris, 36–37, 298n27

Dendi. See Ishutin, Danil

desktop environments, 101–2

diegetic machine acts, 134–35, 143

digital any-space-whatever (digital ASW), 98, 108, 115, 312n18

digital games, 1, 226, 270. See also videogames

disability: definitions, 168–69, 321n33; in The Phantom Pain, 134–35, 141, 318n20; Quadstick, the, 302n17; simulating, 169–70; and videogames, 303n23. See also phantom limbs

disability studies, 39–40, 155

disabling acts, 144–45, 153–54

domestic labor, 337n58

Dota 2: in China, 259, 331n17; cosmetic market, 266; inspirations, 223, 225, 234, 241; mechanics of, 20; metagame, 230, 232–33, 248 (see also Turn of the Tide, The); origins, 240–41; as platform, 215, 245–47, 330n13; and race, 212–15, 255–56; as RTS, 269–70; as service, 242; statistics, 255–58; tournament prizes, 328n5; trademark issues, 240–41; and Warcraft III, 233, 240. See also Defense of the Ancients (Dota); e-sports; International, The

d-pads, 302n16

Dungeons & Dragons, 222

Dyer-Witheford, Nick, 3–4, 295n8, 337n60, 339n11

Echochrome, 100–102, 105–6

Echochrome II, 102–6. See also shadow play

ergodic literature, 94

e-sports, 242–44, 305n35, 308n56, 328n6. See also Dota 2; International, The

E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial (game), 79, 196, 309n1

EVE Online, 16, 67, 69–71, 309n61

exploits: in Doom 64, 45; in Dota 2, 334n41; in Final Fantasy, 321n35; in The Legend of Zelda, 166–67; in The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, 44–47; in Super Smash Bros. Melee, 52–53, 59

EyeWriter, 302n18

Fabiszak, Chris, 53

Feak, 237–40, 333n35, 334n39

feminists: as killjoys and spoilsports, 21, 283–84; organizations of, 39, 303n22; Justin Trudeau as, 278, 339n7. See also Sarkeesian, Anita

feminist theory, 38–39, 155

Fez, 29–32, 299n3

Fish, Phil, 29. See also Fez

Flanagan, Mary, 37–39, 40–41

flexibility, 6, 296n12

Foddy, Bennet, 33–34, 191, 198

foreshortening, 89, 92. See also anamorphosis

4 Minutes and 33 Seconds of Uniqueness, 150–52, 320n30

fourth-dimensional art, 111–12. See also Miegakure

4:32, 152–53

Fox Engine, 128–30

free-to-play games, 149, 216

Frog Fractions 2, 288, 340n19

Galloway, Alexander, 4, 65, 112–13, 131–32, 134–35, 144, 150, 153, 214, 294n5, 310n4, 332n23

game design: critical, 125; definition, 297n21; of Dota 2, 240, 270, 334n41; fan-based, 235–36; feminist, 38, 295n7; Nintendo’s, 199; philosophy, 2–3, 21, 294n4; speedrunning as, 43; Valve’s, 265–68

Game Developers Conference (GDC), 13–14, 128, 138–39

game development, independent, 33–34

gamer theorists, 295n6

games: digital, all as, 226; in game theory, 297n18; and play, 227; speculative, 116–17; and sports, 335n47; Suits’s definition of, 6–8, 169

game theory, 11–12, 297n18, 297n21

Garfield, Richard, 13–14

gender: and blindness, 321n34; and harassment, 279; and indie games, 32; and marginalization, 155; in Valve’s games, 311n10; and virtual reality, 320n32. See also feminists; Sarkeesian, Anita; Tropes vs. Women; Wright, Narcissa

[giantJoystick], 37, 40–41, 303n26

Gianturco, Alex “The Mittani,” 16, 67–69

glitches, 44, 46, 59, 304n29. See also exploits; speedrunning

grammatization, 5, 167, 208, 226, 268, 271. See also cuts (philosophical concept)

graphical realism, 125, 128–31. See also mimesis; photorealism; realism

graphic user interface (GUI), 56–57, 101–2, 223–24, 314n24, 315n26, 327n34, 333n32

Half-Life: graphics, 77–79; as metagame, 310n3; origins of, 260–61; plot, 80, 310n5, 311n10; rules, 81. See also Portal; Valve

hand of the animator, 57–59, 307n53, 327n34. See also animation (early history)

Hansen, Mark B. N., 4, 14, 84, 94–99, 108, 115, 217, 270, 276, 312n18, 315n25, 331n20

harassment, 276, 278–79, 338nn2–4. See also Sarkeesian, Anita

Helen Keller Simulator, The, 18, 125, 154–58

Hellwig, Johann Christian Ludwig, 218–19

hobbies, 268–69

horror, 115

Howard, Nigel, 12–13, 25. See also game theory; Prisoner’s Dilemma, The

Huizinga, Johan, 20, 275, 282, 284, 296n13, 339n11, 339n13. See also magic circle, the

human experience, 114–16, 217–18, 270, 322n4

IceFrog, 238–39, 245

immediacy, 87, 131, 311n12, 317n9

immersive fallacy, the, 131, 317n9

indie games, 29, 31–34, 299n4

Indie Game: The Movie, 26–28, 32–33

interface essentialism, 41

International, The: broadcast, 215–17; character popularity, 332n27; format, 328n7; match times, 328n8; overview, 209–10; prize pool, 328n4; teams attending, 212, 329n9; Turn of the Tide, The, 209–10, 212, 248–54. See also Dota 2; e-sports

Invictus Gaming (iG): against Na`Vi, 212, 215–17; drafting, 230, 232; members, 211; racism against, 212–13; strategy, 214–15; The Turn of the Tide, 247–52, 254–55, 259. See also Dota 2; International, The

iQue, 41–42, 159, 336n54

Ishutin, Danil, 212, 252–55, 268

It Is Pitch Black, 171

Iwata, Satoru, 51–52, 313n20

Jakks Pacific, 40–42, 303n24

Journey, 316n3, 323n10

Kaizo Mario World, 192, 326n28

Kare, Susan, 57, 327n34

Keller, Helen, 156–57

kinesis, 222, 242–43, 269

Kirby, 51–52, 54–55, 306n42

Kojima, Hideo, 132–33, 138–39, 144, 316n6

kriegsspiel, 218–19, 221, 331n19. See also wargames

Lazzarini, Robert, 95–98

Legend of Zelda, The, 165–68

Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, The (OoT): blind play, 19, 162–63, 165, 321n38, 322n39; overview, 41–42; speedrunning techniques, 44–46, 48–49, 305n34; speedrunning theory, 159–61, 168; versions, 305n31

levelHead, 84, 106–10

loading screens, 148, 320n31. See also 4 Minutes and 33 Seconds of Uniqueness

ludic spectatorship, 60, 63–66, 330n15

magic circle, the, 282–84, 296n13. See also standard metagame

Magic: The Gathering, 23–25, 298nn1–2

Malabou, Catherine, 1, 4–6, 285, 295n10, 296n12. See also plasticity

Many Worlds Emulator, 192, 194–95, 326n27

mapping, 64

mashups, 186–89, 191–92, 198, 324n20, 325nn21–23. See also ROM Check Fail

masocore games, 31, 300n12. See also abusive games; Kaizo Mario World; Super Meat Boy

Master Hand, 56–57, 59

materiality, 293n1

McLuhan, Marshall, 5

McMillen, Edmund. See Super Meat Boy

mechanics: as constraints, 180; of controllers, 35–36, 303n21; definitions of, 8–9, 226–28, 296n14; of DotA, 236, 238, 240, 333n33; of Dota 2, 20, 217, 233, 247, 334n41; of Echochrome, 108–9; and exploits, 44–45, 52, 166–68; in first-person shooters, 80; in indie games, 31–33; of kriegspiel, 221–22; of The Legend of Zelda, 166–67; of The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, 45; of The Marriage, 301n14; in mash-ups, 186–87, 324n20; of materiality, 293n1, 293n2; of Mega Man, 186; minimalist, 148, 150; money as, 266; of perspectival rendering, 80, 84; in physics, 296n14; playable critiques of, 30; of ROM CHECK FAIL, 187, 191; and rules-play friction, 227–28, 293n2; of Shahrazad card, 24; of Super Smash Bros. series, 53–54, 197; this book’s metagame, 2; in videogames, 8–9, 35–36, 98, 287

memento mortem mortis: definition, 92–93; game, 118; levelHead as, 108, 110; skulls as, 97–98; in videogames, 98–99

meta (prefix), 10, 296n16, 297n17

metagames: anamorphic, 115–16; Baio’s taxonomy of, 300n10; definitions of, 9–11, 15–17, 25, 55–56, 72, 297n22; early theories of, 11–14; end of, 286–89; examples of, 15–16, 73–76, 119, 171, 205, 273; features of, 3–4, 9, 25; as games about games, 29–31; resiliency of, 285; and rules, 228; standard (see standard metagame); in this book, 1–2, 289; using Mario, 182

Metal Gear, 132–33

Metal Gear Solid (series), 133, 142–44, 316n8, 317nn10–13, 318nn18–19

Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, 145–47, 319nn24–25

Metal Gear Solid 4, 134, 141–42, 144

Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain: ad campaign, 135–40; console war in, 319n22; disability in, 134–35, 141, 318n20; and Hollywood, 132; opening scenes, 126–28, 135; as sandbox, 316n3

Mickey Mouse, 57–58

Miegakure, 111–14, 315n29

Mighty Jill Off, 300n12

mimesis, 84–85, 87, 137–38. See also graphical realism

minimalist aesthetics, 146–50. See also Helen Keller Simulator, The

natural user interface (NUI), 106

Natus Vincere (Na`Vi): against iG, 212, 215–17, 232, 329n9; drafting, 230, 232; members, 211; The Turn of the Tide, 247–52, 254–55, 259. See also Dota 2; International, The

Neichus, 238–39, 334n39

NES Remix, 198

networks, 179–80, 202–4

Newell, Gabe: and customers, 261; founding Valve, 260; hobbies, 268–69; management strategies, 20, 208, 263, 337n59; on money, 266–67; on productivity, 265; on Steam, 267

New Mexico, 77, 79–80

99 Exercises in Play, 205

Nintendo, 196–97, 199, 201, 308n55, 313n20

Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), 32, 322n5

nondiegetic machine acts, 134–35, 143

notgames, 319n28

object-oriented ontology, 79, 114–15, 309n1, 312n17

Ocarina of Time. See Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, The

One Thousand and One Nights, 23–24

Oulipo, 22, 174, 322. See also Queneau, Raymond

pataphysics, 257–58

perspectival rendering: as anamorphic, 88–91, 93; and desktop environments, 101–2; fantasies of, 87; and first-person shooters, 80, 82–84; functioning of, 89; and the games industry, 87–88; technologies for, 85–86. See also mimesis

perspective, 83–84, 90, 314n23

Peuter, Greig, de, 3–4, 295n8, 337n60, 339n11

phantom limbs, 140–41

photorealism, 130–32, 144, 317n11

plasticity, 5–6, 295n9, 295n10

platforms, 35–36

play: conditions of, 59–60; forms of, 60; and games, 227; material traces of, 322n1; and production, 15; reduction of, 8; rhetorics of, 5–6; Suits’s definition, 227; in videogames, 46, 293n2. See also spectatorship: ludic

playculture, 38–39

players, standardization of, 36

Pliny the Elder, 84–87, 104, 130

Plott, Nick, 60–63

Plott, Sean, 60–62

poetics, combinatorial, 174

Portal, 81–83, 310n8, 311n10. See also Half-Life; Valve

powerups, 51, 134, 197, 306n42

precarious labor, 33, 208

Prisoner’s Dilemma, The, 11–14, 294n3

probability, 220–21, 227. See also statistics

Project M, 56, 307n51

Project M-etagame, 54–55. See also Terrell, Richard

prototypes, 52, 298n22, 299n7, 308n54

Quadstick, 302n17

Queneau, Raymond, 19, 22, 174–76, 205. See also Oulipo

race: and Dota 2, 212–15, 255–56; and Super Smash Bros., 57–59; in videogames, 327n34, 329nn10–11

ratio, 222, 226, 242–43, 269

realism, 130–31. See also graphical realism; photorealism

realisticness, 131

real-time strategy games (RTS), 223, 269. See also StarCraft; StarCraft II; Warcraft: Humans and Orcs

Refenes, Tommy. See Super Meat Boy

Reinhardt, Ad, 121–24, 158

Research & Design 4 (R&D4), 304n28

Rez, 302n20

ROM Check Fail, 187–88, 190–91, 325n25

ROM hacks, 190–92

rules, 8–9, 227–28, 296n14

rumble, 319n21

Sakurai, Masahiro, 51–52, 197

Salen Tekinbaş, Katie, 14, 21, 131, 297n22, 339n11, 339n13

Sarkeesian, Anita: harassment of, 275–78; as killjoy and spoilsport, 283–84; recognition of, 338n5; representations of, 279; Tropes vs. Women, 276–78

Sartre, Jean-Paul, 19, 178–80, 189, 195, 326n32

self-competitive gameplay, 196, 326n32

self-cooperative gameplay, 195–96

seriality: definitions of, 177–78; and modernity, 178–79; new, 189–90; in replays, 198–99; in videogames, 19, 176–77, 180–81, 323n7, 323n9

shadow play, 104–5, 315n28. See also Echochrome II

shahrazad (Magic: The Gathering), 13, 24–25

skulls, 95–99

Smith, Sean, 67–71

spectatorship: as commodity, 245–47; of e-sports, 244–45; ludic, 60, 63–66, 330n15; as work, 67

speculative games, 116–17

speedrunning, 15; categories, 304n29; definition, 42; end of, 287; Final Fantasy, 321n35; for fundraising, 47–48; as hobby, 305n38, 306n39; ideologies of, 46; Kirby’s Adventure, 306n43; as metagame, 43–45, 47; tool-assisted (TAS), 176, 183–86; and Twitch, 48, 65; and visuality, 160–61. See also Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, The

spoilsports, 20–21, 284

sports, 169, 225–26, 243–44, 335n47

standard metagame: as anti-metagaming, 280–81; and consumption, 279–80; definition of, 36–37, 298n27, 339n10; feminists breaking, 39, 283–84; ideology of, 281, 283; and spoilsports, 284. See also magic circle, the

Star Citizen, 286, 339n15

StarCraft: inspiration, 225, 331n22; Korean popularity, 61–62; metagame, 63–64; overview, 60–61

StarCraft II, 16

StarEdit, 234, 333n32

statistics, 220–22. See also probability

Steam, 218, 267–68. See also Dota 2; Valve

Stemkoski, Daniel, 15, 60–64

streaming, 66–67. See also spectatorship: ludic

Streaming. See also Twitch

Suits, Bernard, 6–10, 37, 169, 227, 339n11. See also utopia

Super Guide, 199

Super Mario Bros. (NES): as combinatorial, 174, 176; demo mode, 327n35; repetition in, 173–74; ROM hacks, 191; speedrunning records, 340n17

Super Mario Bros. (series), 181–82, 189–90, 322n2, 323n11–12. See also Kaizo Mario World; ROM Check Fail

Super Mario Bros. AI competition, 192–94, 326n31

Super Mario Clouds, 150, 182, 324n15

Super Mario Maker, 197, 199–202

Super Mario World, 303n21

Super Meat Boy, 28–29, 31, 73, 299n3, 299n7, 300n11

Super Paper Mario, 147, 319n26

Super Smash Bros., 52, 56–57, 307n50

Super Smash Bros. Brawl, 54

Super Smash Bros. Melee, 15, 52–54, 56, 59

Super Smash Bros. Wii U, 197, 306n48, 307n52

Tasteless. See Plott, Nick

Taylor, T.L., 64, 242–43, 329n10, 335n46

technésexual, 302n19

ten Bosch, Marc. See Miegakure

Terrell, Richard, 15, 54–56. See also Project M-etagame

Tetris study, Kirsh and Maglio’s, 109–10

Tide Hunter, 273

tool-assisted speedrunning (TAS), 176, 183–86

Triforce, 75

Tropes vs. Women, 276–77

Turn of the Tide, The, 209–10, 212, 248–54

Twitch: background, 47, 333n30; and collaborative play, 66; and speedrunning, 48, 65; viewership, 336n48. See also streaming

2D space, as creative constraint, 99–100

undercurrency, 208–9, 266, 272

upgrade paths, 34, 128, 141, 281

utopia: goldfarming disrupting, 329n11; and hypertrophy, 126; the Internet as, 214; of Thomas More, 329n11; play as, 2, 227, 282; Bernard Suits, 6–10, 169; technological, 281

Valve: business model, 233, 261–62, 266, 271; and China, 259; and computational capitalism, 337n57; corporate structure, 263, 337n59, 337n60; and cosmetic markets, 266–67; and Dota 2, 240–41, 268; game development philiosophy, 265–68; and modders, 261; origins of, 260–61; and piracy, 336n55; productivity measures, 264–65. See also Dota 2; Half-Life; Portal

vectoral class, the, 262, 269

Verner, Jordan, 159–63

videogames: as commodities, 3–4; as communal, 73; as control allegories, 112–13; controllers, 35–37, 40, 302n17, 315n26, 323n13; definition, 298n26; and disability, 170 (see also Helen Keller Simulator, The; Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain); and empire, 295n8; and finance capital, 208; as ideological form of play, 6, 8, 37, 227, 281; as labor, 259–60; as not games, 8, 26; play in, 46, 293n2; rules in, 8–9, 332n24; seriality in, 19, 176–77, 180–81; and sports, 243–44; and violence, 331n23, 338n6, 339n14. See also digital games

Vile Rat. See Smith, Sean

virtual reality, 285–86, 320n32

von Neumann, John, 11–12, 297n20, 297n21

Warcraft: Orcs & Humans, 223–25

Warcraft III, 233, 235–36, 240, 333n34, 333n37

wargames, 220–23. See also kriegsspiel; Warcraft: Orcs & Humans

Warhammer: The Game of Fantasy Battles, 223

World Cyber Games (WCG), 61

World of Warcraft, 203, 334n38

Wright, Narcissa: exploits, interest in, 44; as speedrunner of OoT, 41–42, 46, 48–50, 158–59; and Super Smash Bros., 53, 72

Yokoi, Gunpei, 302n16

Zimmerman, Eric, 14, 21, 131, 282, 297n22, 298n22, 309n59, 339n11, 339n13. See also magic circle, the

Z targeting, 305n32

Copyright 2017 by Stephanie Boluk and Patrick LeMieux

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